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Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

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$115.95

Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

Eiji Oki, Roberto Rojas-Cessa, Christian Vogt

ISBN: 978-0-470-49903-0 April 2012 260 Pages

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Description

Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility.

This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discuss internetworking technologies, architectures and protocols. The book also shows application of the concepts in next generation networks and discusses protection and restoration, as well as various tunnelling protocols and applications. The book ends with a thorough discussion of emerging topics.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xv

About the Authors xvii

1 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Overview 1

1.1 Fundamental Architecture / 1

1.2 Internet Protocol Basics / 4

1.2.1 Packet Header / 5

1.2.2 Internet Protocol Address / 7

1.2.3 Internet Protocol Classification / 7

1.2.4 Subnet and its Masking / 9

1.2.5 Subnet Calculation / 11

1.3 Routing / 13

1.3.1 Routing across Providers / 14

1.3.2 Routing within Edge Networks / 15

1.3.3 Routing Scalability / 16

References / 18

2 Transport-Layer Protocols 19

2.1 Transmission Control Protocol / 19

2.1.1 Transmission Control Protocol Header Structure / 19

2.1.2 Three-Way Handshake / 20

2.1.3 Transmission Control Protocol Flow Control and Congestion Control / 21

2.1.4 Port Number / 24

2.2 User Datagram Protocol / 25

2.2.1 User Datagram Protocol Header Structure / 25

2.3 Stream Control Transmission Protocol / 26

2.3.1 Stream Control Transmission Protocol Packet Structure / 26

2.3.2 Security: Prevention of SYN Attacks / 27

2.4 Real-Time Transport Protocol / 29

2.4.1 Real-Time Transport Protocol Header Structure / 29

References / 30

3 Internet Architecture 31

3.1 Internet Exchange Point / 31

3.2 History of Internet Exchange Points / 33

3.3 Internet Service Provider Interconnection Relationships / 34

3.4 Peering and Transit / 35

References / 37

4 IP Routing Protocols 39

4.1 Overview of Routing Protocols / 40

4.1.1 Interior Gateway Protocol / 41

4.1.2 Exterior Gateway Protocol / 42

4.2 Routing Information Protocol / 43

4.2.1 Routing Information Protocol Header Format / 43

4.2.2 Update of Routing Table in Routing Information Protocol / 44

4.2.3 Maintenance of Routing Table in Routing Information Protocol / 46

4.2.4 Split Horizon / 47

4.2.5 Limitations of Routing Information Protocol / 47

4.3 Open Shortest Path First / 48

4.3.1 Shortest-Path Algorithm / 48

4.3.2 Hierarchical Routing / 51

4.3.3 Open Shortest Path First Packet Format / 51

4.3.4 Comparison of Routing Information Protocol and Open Shortest Path First / 52

4.4 Border Gateway Protocol / 53

4.4.1 Border Gateway Protocol Message Flows / 53

4.4.2 Border Gateway Protocol Policy Selection Attributes / 54

References / 57

5 Multiprotocol Label Switching 59

5.1 Overview / 59

5.2 Functions and Mechanisms / 63

5.3 Applicabilities / 67

References / 72

6 IP Quality Of Service 75

6.1 Introduction / 75

6.2 Quality of Service in IP Version 4 / 75

6.3 Integrated Services / 77

6.3.1 Packet Scheduler / 77

6.3.2 Packet Classifier / 77

6.3.3 Admission Control / 78

6.3.4 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) / 79

6.4 Differentiated Services / 81

6.5 Quality Of Service with Nested Differentiated Services Levels / 82

6.5.1 Drawbacks of Explicit Endpoint Admission Control with Path Selection / 84

6.5.2 OSPF-Based Adaptive and Flexible Quality of Service Provisioning / 85

6.5.3 Combination of Security and Quality of Service / 86

6.5.4 Path Selection Algorithm Analysis / 87

References / 90

7 IP Multicast and Anycast 93

7.1 Addressing / 93

7.1.1 Multicast Addressing / 93

7.1.2 Differences between Multicasting and Multiple Unicasting / 95

7.2 Multicast Routing / 96

7.2.1 Optimal Routing: Shortest-Path Trees / 96

7.2.2 Unicast Routing / 96

7.2.3 Multicast Routing / 96

7.3 Routing Protocols / 97

7.3.1 Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF) / 98

7.3.2 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol / 99

7.3.3 Core-Based Tree (CBT) Protocol / 100

7.3.4 Protocol-Independent Multicast / 101

7.3.5 Simple Multicast Routing Protocol / 101

7.4 Anycasting / 102

7.4.1 Architectural Issues / 103

7.4.2 Anycast Addresses / 103

7.4.3 Differences between the Services Offered by IP Multicasting and IP Anycasting / 104

7.5 IPv6 Anycast Routing Protocol: Protocol-Independent Anycast—Sparse Mode / 105

References / 106

8 Layer-2 Transport over Packet 109

8.1 Draft-Martini Signaling and Encapsulation / 109

8.1.1 Functionality / 110

8.1.2 Encapsulation / 110

8.1.3 Protocol-Specific Encapsulation / 111

8.2 Layer-2 Tunneling Protocol / 114

8.2.1 Layer-2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3 / 115

8.2.2 Pseudowire Emulation Edge to Edge / 118

References / 121

9 Virtual Private Wired Service 123

9.1 Types of Private Wire Services / 123

9.1.1 Layer-2 Virtual Private Services: Wide Area Networks and Local Area Networks / 124

9.1.2 Virtual Private Wire Service / 126

9.1.3 Virtual Private Multicast Service / 127

9.1.4 IP-Only Layer-2 Virtual Private Network / 128

9.1.5 Internet Protocol Security / 129

9.2 Generic Routing Encapsulation / 130

9.3 Layer-2 Tunneling Protocol / 131

9.4 Layer-3 Virtual Private Network 2547bis, Virtual Router / 131

9.4.1 Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol / 133

References / 136

10 IP and Optical Networking 137

10.1 IP/Optical Network Evolution / 138

10.1.1 Where Networking Is Today / 138

10.1.2 Where Networking Is Going / 139

10.2 Challenges in Legacy Traditional IP/Optical Networks / 140

10.2.1 Proprietary Network Management Systems / 140

10.2.2 Complexity of Provisioning in Legacy IP/Optical Networks / 141

10.3 Automated Provisioning in IP/Optical Networks / 142

10.4 Control Plane Models for IP/Optical Networking / 144

10.4.1 Optical Internetworking Forum’s Optical User Network Interface: Overlay Model / 145

10.4.2 Internet EngineeringTask Force’s Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching: Peer Model / 145

10.5 Next-Generation MultiLayer Network Design Requirements / 147

10.6 Benefits and Challenges in IP/Optical Networking / 148

References / 149

11 IP Version 6 151

11.1 Addresses in IP Version 6 / 152

11.1.1 Unicast IP Addresses / 152

11.1.2 Multicast IP Addresses / 153

11.2 IP Packet Headers / 154

11.3 IP Address Resolution / 155

11.4 IP Version 6 Deployment: Drivers and Impediments / 156

11.4.1 Need for Backwards Compatibility / 157

11.4.2 Initial Deployment Drivers / 158

11.4.3 Reaching a Critical Mass / 160

References / 161

12 IP Traffic Engineering 163

12.1 Models of Traffic Demands / 163

12.2 Optimal Routing with Multiprotocol Label Switching / 165

12.2.1 Overview / 165

12.2.2 Applicability of Optimal Routing / 165

12.2.3 Network Model / 166

12.2.4 Optimal Routing Formulations with Three Models / 166

12.3 Link-Weight Optimization with Open Shortest Path First / 169

12.3.1 Overview / 169

12.3.2 Examples of Routing Control with Link Weights / 170

12.3.3 Link-Weight Setting Against Network Failure / 172

12.4 Extended Shortest-Path-Based Routing Schemes / 173

12.4.1 Smart–Open Shortest Path First / 174

12.4.2 Two-Phase Routing / 174

12.4.3 Fine Two-Phase Routing / 176

12.4.4 Features of Routing Schemes / 177

References / 177

13 IP Network Security 181

13.1 Introduction / 181

13.2 Detection of Denial-of-Service Attack / 182

13.2.1 Backscatter Analysis / 182

13.2.2 Multilevel Tree or Online Packet Statistics / 184

13.3 IP Traceback / 187

13.3.1 IP Traceback Solutions / 189

13.4 Edge Sampling Scheme / 189

13.5 Advanced Marking Scheme / 193

References / 196

14 Mobility Support for IP 197

14.1 Mobility Management Approaches / 199

14.1.1 Host Routes / 200

14.1.2 Tunneling / 201

14.1.3 Route Optimization / 203

14.2 Security Threats Related to IP Mobility / 205

14.2.1 Impersonation / 205

14.2.2 Redirection-Based Flooding / 208

14.2.3 Possible Solutions / 210

14.3 Mobility Support in IPv6 / 213

14.4 Reactive Versus Proactive Mobility Support / 218

14.5 Relation to Multihoming / 219

14.6 Protocols Supplementing Mobility / 220

14.6.1 Router and Subnet Prefix Discovery / 220

14.6.2 Movement Detection / 221

14.6.3 IP Address Configuration / 222

14.6.4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection / 223

14.6.5 Internet Control Message Protocol for IP Version 6 / 224

14.6.6 Optimizations / 224

14.6.7 Media-Independent Handover Services / 227

References / 231

Index 235