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Organic and Molecular Electronics: From Principles to Practice, 2nd Edition

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Organic and Molecular Electronics: From Principles to Practice, 2nd Edition

Michael C. Petty

ISBN: 978-1-118-87925-2 October 2018 512 Pages

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Description

An introduction to the interdisciplinary subject of molecular electronics, revised and updated

The revised second edition of Organic and Molecular Electronics offers a guide to the fabrication and application of a wide range of electronic devices based around organic materials and low-cost technologies. Since the publication of the first edition, organic electronics has greatly progressed, as evidenced by the myriad companies that have been established to explore the new possibilities.

The text contains an introduction into the physics and chemistry of organic materials, and includes a discussion of the means to process the materials into a form (in most cases, a thin film) where they can be exploited in electronic and optoelectronic devices. The text covers the areas of application and potential application that range from chemical and biochemical sensors to plastic light emitting displays. The updated second edition reflects the recent progress in both organic and molecular electronics and:

  • Offers an accessible resource for a wide range of readers
  • Contains a comprehensive text that covers topics including electrical conductivity, optical phenomena, electroactive organic compounds, tools for molecular electronics and much more
  • Includes illustrative examples based on the most recent research
  • Presents problems at the end of each chapter to help reinforce key points

Written mainly for engineering students, Organic and Molecular Electronics: From Principles to Practice provides an updated introduction to the interdisciplinary subjects of organic electronics and molecular electronics with detailed examples of applications. 

Related Resources

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

Symbols and Abbreviations xix

About the Companion Website xxv

1 Scope of Organic and Molecular Electronics 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Organic Materials for Electronics 2

1.3 Molecular Electronics 4

1.4 The Biological World 12

1.5 Future Opportunities 13

1.6 Conclusions 15

Problems 15

References 16

Further Reading 17

2 Materials’ Foundations 19

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Electronic Structure 20

2.3 Chemical Bonding 27

2.4 Bonding in Organic Compounds 35

2.5 Crystalline and Non crystalline Materials 43

2.6 Polymers 53

2.7 Soft Matter: Emulsions, Foams, and Gels 58

2.8 Diffusion 59

Problems 60

Reference 60

Further Reading 60

3 Electrical Conductivity 63

3.1 Introduction 64

3.2 Classical Theory 64

3.3 Energy Bands in Solids 71

3.4 Organic Compounds 91

3.5 Low‐Frequency Conductivity 105

3.6 Conductivity at High Frequencies 113

Problems 118

References 118

Further Reading 120

4 Optical Phenomena 121

4.1 Introduction 121

4.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 122

4.3 Refractive Index 123

4.4 Interaction of EM Waves with Organic Molecules 127

4.5 Transmission and Reflection from Interfaces 140

4.6 Wave guiding 145

4.7 Surface Plasmons 146

4.8 Photonic Crystals 151

Problems 155

References 155

Further Reading 156

5 Electroactive Organic Compounds 157

5.1 Introduction 157

5.2 Selected Topics in Chemistry 158

5.3 Conductive Polymers 166

5.4 Charge‐Transfer Complexes 170

5.5 Graphene, Fullerenes, and Nanotubes 173

5.6 Piezoelectricity, Pyroelectricity, and Ferroelectricity 180

5.7 Magnetic Materials 185

Problems 194

References 194

Further Reading 196

6 Tools for Molecular Electronics 197

6.1 Introduction 197

6.2 Direct Imaging 198

6.3 X‐Ray Reflection 202

6.4 Neutron Reflection 206

6.5 Electron Diffraction 206

6.6 Infrared Spectroscopy 208

6.7 Surface Analytical Techniques 213

6.8 Scanning Probe Microscopies 214

6.9 Film Thickness Measurements 217

Problems 218

References 219

Further Reading 220

7 Thin Film Processing and Device Fabrication 221

7.1 Introduction 221

7.2 Established Deposition Methods 222

7.3 Molecular Architectures 239

7.4 Micro‐and Nanofabrication 253

Problems 260

References 260

Further Reading 263

8 Liquid Crystals and Devices 265

8.1 Introduction 265

8.2 Liquid Crystal Phases 266

8.3 Liquid Crystal Polymers 271

8.4 Display Devices 273

8.5 Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals 279

8.6 Polymer‐dispersed Liquid Crystals 281

8.7 Liquid Crystal Lenses 282

8.8 Other Application Areas 283

Problems 284

References 285

Further Reading 286

9 Plastic Electronics 287

9.1 Introduction 288

9.2 Organic Diodes 288

9.3 Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Structures 292

9.4 Organic Field Effect Transistors 295

9.5 Organic Integrated Circuits 301

9.6 Transparent Conducting Films 303

9.7 Organic Light‐emitting Devices 304

9.8 Organic Photovoltaic Devices 321

9.9 Other Application Areas 328

Problems 331

References 332

Further Reading 336

10 Chemical Sensors and Physical Actuators 337

10.1 Introduction 337

10.2 Sensing Systems 338

10.3 Definitions 339

10.4 Chemical Sensors 341

10.5 Biological Olfaction 360

10.6 Electronic Noses 362

10.7 Physical Sensors and Actuators 363

10.8 Wearable Electronics 369

Problems 369

References 370

Further Reading 371

11 Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics 373

11.1 Introduction 374

11.2 Nano systems 374

11.3 Engineering Materials at the Molecular Level 376

11.4 Molecular Device Architectures 381

11.5 Molecular Rectification 385

11.6 Electronic Switching and Memory Phenomena 387

11.7 Single‐electron Devices 395

11.8 Optical and Chemical Switches 397

11.9 Nanomagnetics 402

11.10 Nanotube and Graphene Electronics 404

11.11 Molecular Actuation 407

11.12 Molecular Logic Circuits 410

11.13 Computing Architectures 412

11.14 Quantum Computing 414

11.15 Evolvable Electronics 415

Problems 416

References 416

Further Reading 420

12 Bioelectronics 421

12.1 Introduction 422

12.2 Biological Building Blocks 422

12.3 Nucleotides 429

12.4 Cells 433

12.5 Genetic Coding 434

12.6 The Biological Membrane 438

12.7 Neurons 443

12.8 Biosensors 445

12.9 DNA Electronics 449

12.10 Photobiology 450

12.11 Molecular Motors 458

Problems 461

References 461

Further Reading 463

Appendix 465

Index 469