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Whole Grains and their Bioactives: Composition and Health

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Whole Grains and their Bioactives: Composition and Health

Jodee Johnson (Editor), Taylor C. Wallace (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-12947-9 March 2019 512 Pages

Description

A review of various types of whole grains, the bioactives present within them, and their health-promoting effects

As rates of obesity and other chronic conditions continue to rise, so too does the need for clear and accurate information on the connections between diet and disease, particularly regarding the cereal grains that dominate the Western diet. In this volume, editors Jodee Johnson and Taylor Wallace assemble a panel of leading experts to address this issue. The result is a comprehensive examination of the cereal and pseudo-cereal grains and their most important bioactive compounds.

Not only does this volume offer summaries of existing research, it also places these findings within the larger context of health promotion and disease prevention. This includes frank discussions on the limitations of existing studies, as well as current gaps in research for those who want to offer evidence-based recommendations to their patients. Topics addressed include:

  • Methodical analyses of domesticated grain species, their horticultural history, nutritional composition, and known effects on health
  • Beneficial properties of certain bioactive compounds found in particular grain species
  • How bioactive compounds work within an individual’s overall diet to increase health and prevent disease

Academic and industry researchers, as well as medical practitioners and public health professionals, will appreciate Whole Grains and their Bioactives, not only as an engaging overview of current research, but also as an illuminating contribution to the often-murky debate surrounding health and the human diet.

List of Contributors xv

Part I Introduction 1

1 Introduction to Whole Grains and Human Health 3
Jodee Johnson and Taylor C. Wallace

1.1 History of Whole Grains 4

1.2 Who Consumes Whole Grains? 5

1.3 What are Whole Grains? 5

1.4 Components of Whole Grains 6

1.5 Whole Grain Bioactives 6

1.6 Health-Promoting Effects of Whole Grains 7

1.7 Conclusion 13

References 13

Part II Whole Grains, Whole Food Nutrition 19

2 Wheat 21
Daniel D. Gallaher and James A. Anderson

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 History of the Grain 21

2.3 Types 22

2.4 Nutritional Composition 25

2.5 Health Effects on Chronic Diseases 30

2.6 Conclusion 35

References 36

3 Oats 45
Yao Tang, Aaron Yerke and Shengmin Sang

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Nutritional Composition 47

3.3 Health Effects in Chronic Diseases 52

3.4 Conclusion 55

References 55

4 Rice 63
Nora Jean Nealon and Elizabeth P. Ryan

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 History of Whole Grain Rice 63

4.3 Variety in Whole Grain Rice Quality and Preferences 64

4.4 Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Compounds in Whole Grain Rice 64

4.5 Whole Grain Rice Consumption and Prevention Against Chronic Disease 77

4.6 Whole Grain Rice Consumption and Protection Against Gut Pathogens 81

4.7 Conclusion 82

Acknowledgments 83

References 83

5 Corn 113
Siyuan Sheng, Tong Li and Rui Hai Liu

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Macro-and Micronutrients in Corn 114

5.3 Corn Phytochemicals 114

5.4 Health Benefits 124

5.5 Conclusion 128

References 128

6 Barley 135
Clarence W. (Walt) Newman, Rosemary K. Newman and Christine E. Fastnaught

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 The Beginning 135

6.3 The Whole Grain Barley Kernel 137

6.4 Health Effects of Bioactive Compounds in Barley on Chronic Diseases 149

6.5 Conclusion 156

References 156

7 Rye 169
Laila Meija and Indrikis Krams

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 Types 171

7.3 Consumption 171

7.4 Epidemiological Studies of Rye Intake 171

7.5 Rye Products 172

7.6 Nutritional Composition 177

7.7 Phytochemicals 178

7.8 Rye Fiber 178

7.9 Health Effects on Chronic Diseases 186

7.10 Gut Health 191

7.11 Cancer 192

7.12 Conclusion 198

References 198

Part III Pseudo Cereal Grains, Whole Food Nutrition 209

8 Amaranth 211
Aída Jimena Velarde-Salcedo, Esaú Bojórquez-Velázquez and Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa

8.1 Introduction 211

8.2 History of Amaranth 212

8.3 Amaranth Genetic Diversity 213

8.4 Amaranth Plant Physiology 215

8.5 Amaranth Seed Morphology 216

8.6 Amaranth Seed Chemical Composition and Nutritional Properties 217

8.7 Phytochemical Compounds in Amaranth Seeds 223

8.8 Amaranth Seed Storage Proteins 224

8.9 Health Effects of Amaranth Grain 226

8.10 Conclusion 240

References 240

9 Buckwheat 251
Juan Antonio Giménez Bastida, José Moisés Laparra Llopis and Henryk Zielinski

9.1 Introduction 251

9.2 History of the Grain 251

9.3 Nutritional Composition of Buckwheat 253

9.4 Metabolism and Bioavailability 254

9.5 Health Effects on Chronic Diseases 255

9.6 Conclusion 260

Acknowledgments 260

References 260

10 Quinoa 269
Beenu Tanwar, Ankit Goyal, Syed Irshaan, Vikas Kumar, Manvesh Kumar Sihag, Ami Patel and Intelli Kaur

10.1 Introduction 269

10.2 History of the Quinoa Grain 270

10.3 Types of Quinoa 270

10.4 Nutritional Composition 271

10.5 Phytochemicals/Bioactives and Antinutritional Factors 277

10.6 Health Benefits 287

10.7 Food Applications 294

10.8 Future Prospects 294

10.9 Conclusion 295

References 295

Part IV Health-Promoting Properties of Whole Grain Bioactive Compounds 307

11 Avenanthramides 309
Tianou Zhang and Li Li Ji

11.1 Introduction 309

11.2 Presence in Whole Grains 309

11.3 Chemical Structure and Biosynthesis 310

11.4 Effects of Processing 311

11.5 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion 314

11.6 Health Benefits 320

11.7 Conclusions and Future Research 330

References 331

12 𝛃-Glucans 339
Susan Tosh and S. Shea Miller

12.1 Introduction 339

12.2 Presence and Distribution in Whole Grains 340

12.3 Chemistry 342

12.4 Mechanisms of Action 344

12.5 Effects of Processing 348

12.6 Conclusion 350

References 351

13 Phenolic Acids 357
C-Y. Oliver Chen, Sérgio M. Costa and Klinsmann Carolo

13.1 Introduction 357

13.2 Presence of Phenolic Acids in Whole Grain 358

13.3 Factors Affecting Phenolic Acid Content in Grains 363

13.4 Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Grain Phenolic Acids 365

13.5 Health Benefits of Grain Phenolic Acids 366

13.6 Conclusion 370

References 371

14 Carotenoids 383
Elizabeth J. Johnson

14.1 Introduction 383

14.2 Chemistry 384

14.3 Presence in Whole Grains 384

14.4 Dietary Databases 387

14.5 Bioavailability 387

14.6 Effect of Processing, Storage, and Environment 388

14.7 Conclusion 389

References 389

15 Alkylresorcinols 393
Alastair B. Ross

15.1 Introduction 393

15.2 Chemistry and Nomenclature 393

15.3 Presence of Alkylresorcinols in Cereals 394

15.4 Effect of Food Processing on Alkylresorcinols 394

15.5 Measuring Alkylresorcinols 396

15.6 Intake of Alkylresorcinols 397

15.7 Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Alkylresorcinols 398

15.8 Biological Effects of Alkylresorcinols 398

15.9 Mechanisms of Action 399

15.10 Use of Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites as Biomarkers of Whole Grain Intake 400

15.11 Conclusion 402

References 402

16 Lignans 407
Iman Zarei and Elizabeth P. Ryan

16.1 Introduction 407

16.2 Presence in Whole Grains 408

16.3 Chemistry 408

16.4 Metabolism of Lignans by Human Gut Microbiota and Bioavailability 410

16.5 Biological Activities 413

16.6 Impact of Agronomic Factors on Lignan Content in Foods 414

16.7 Effect of Processing 414

16.8 Safety 415

16.9 Conclusion 415

Acknowledgments 420

References 420

17 Phytosterols 427
Dan Zhu, and Laura Nyström

17.1 Introduction 427

17.2 Chemistry 427

17.3 Presence in Whole Grains 431

17.4 Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability 442

17.5 Mechanisms of Action 446

17.6 Effect of Processing 451

17.7 Conclusion 454

References 454

18 Phytic Acid and Phytase Enzyme 467
Vikas Kumar, Amit K. Sinha and Kimia Kajbaf

18.1 Introduction 467

18.2 Food Sources of Phytic Acid 468

18.3 Phytase 469

18.4 Classification of Phytase 474

18.5 Factors Influencing Phytase Bioefficacy 474

18.6 Source of Phytase 476

18.7 Beneficial Health Effects of Phytate 476

18.8 Conclusion 478

References 478

Index 485