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Handbook of 3D Integration, Volume 4: Design, Test, and Thermal Management

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Handbook of 3D Integration, Volume 4: Design, Test, and Thermal Management

Description

This fourth volume of the landmark handbook focuses on the design, testing, and thermal management of 3D-integrated circuits, both from a technological and materials science perspective.
Edited and authored by key contributors from top research institutions and high-tech companies, the first part of the book provides an overview of the latest developments in 3D chip design, including challenges and opportunities. The second part focuses on the test methods used to assess the quality and reliability of the 3D-integrated circuits, while the third and final part deals with thermal management and advanced cooling technologies and their integration.
This fourth volume of the landmark handbook focuses on the design, testing, and thermal management of 3D-integrated circuits, both from a technological and materials science perspective.
Edited and authored by key contributors from top research institutions and high-tech companies, the first part of the book provides an overview of the latest developments in 3D chip design, including challenges and opportunities. The second part focuses on the test methods used to assess the quality and reliability of the 3D-integrated circuits, while the third and final part deals with thermal management and advanced cooling technologies and their integration.
 

Introduction to Design, Test and Thermal Management of 3D Integrated Circuits xv

Part I Design 1

1 3D DesignStyles 3
Paul D. Franzon

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 3D-IC Technology Set 3

1.3 Why 3D 6

1.4 Miniaturization 7

1.5 Memory Bandwidth 8

1.6 3D Logic 10

1.7 Heterogeneous Integration 16

1.8 Conclusions 18

References 18

2 Ultrafine Pitch 3D Stacked Integrated Circuits: Technology, Design Enablement, and Application 21
DragomirMilojevic, Prashant Agrawal, Praveen Raghavan, Geert Van der Plas, Francky Catthoor, Liesbet Van der Perre, Dimitrios Velenis, Ravi Varadarajan, and Eric Beyne

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Overview of 3D Integration Technologies 23

2.3 Design Enablement of Ultrafine Pitch 3D Integrated Circuits 25

2.4 Implementation of Mobile Wireless Application 32

2.5 Conclusions 38

References 39

3 Power Delivery Network and Integrity in 3D-IC Chips 41
Makoto Nagata

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 PDN Structure and Integrity 41

3.3 PDN Simulation and Characterization 43

3.4 PDN in 3D Integration 49

References 52

4 Multiphysics Challenges and Solutions for the Design of Heterogeneous 3D Integrated System 53
Alexander Steinhardt, Dimitrios Papaioannou, Andy Heinig, and Peter Schneider

4.1 Introduction 53

4.2 Data Handling for the System View 61

4.3 Electrical Challenges 62

4.4 Mechanical Challenges 67

4.5 Thermal Challenges 68

4.6 Thermomechanical Challenges 72

Acknowledgments 77

References 77

5 Physical Design Flow for 3D/CoWoS®Stacked ICs 81
Yu-Shiang Lin, Sandeep K. Goel, Jonathan Yuan, Tom Chen, and Frank Lee

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 CoWoS®vs. 3D Design Paradigm 82

5.3 Physical Design Challenges 83

5.4 Physical Design Flow 85

5.5 Physical Design Guideline 94

5.6 TSMC Reference Flows 113

5.7 Conclusion 114

References 114

6 Design and CAD Solutions for Cooling and Power Delivery for Monolithic 3D-ICs 115
Sandeep Samal and Sung K. Lim

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 New Thermal Issues in Monolithic 3D-ICs 117

6.3 Fast Thermal Analysis with Adaptive Regression 121

6.4 New Power Delivery Issues in Monolithic 3D-ICs 126

6.5 Power Delivery Network Optimization 134

6.5.1 Design Styles 134

6.6 Conclusions 139

References 139

7 Electronic Design Automation for 3D 141
Paul D. Franzon

7.1 Introduction 141

7.2 EDA Flows for 3D-IC 141

7.3 Commercial EDA Support 143

7.4 Modular Partitioning Approaches 143

7.5 Circuit Partitioning 145

7.6 Conclusions 146

References 147

8 3D Stacked DRAM Memories 149
Christian Weis, Matthias Jung, and Norbert Wehn

8.1 3D-DRAM Design Space and DRAM Technology Background 150

8.2 Design Space Exploration of 3D-DRAMs 160

8.3 Architectural 3D Stacked DRAM Controller Optimizations 176

8.4 Conclusion 183

References 184

Part II Test 187

9 Cost Modeling for 2.5D and 3D Stacked ICs 189
Mottaqiallah Taouil, Said Hamdioui, and Erik Jan Marinissen

9.1 Introduction 189

9.2 Testing 3D Stacked ICs 189

9.3 Cost Modeling 191

9.4 3D-COSTAR 193

9.5 Case Studies 196

9.6 Conclusion 207

References 207

10 Interconnect Testing for 2.5D- and 3D-SICs 209
Shi-Yu Huang

10.1 Introduction 209

10.2 Pre-Bond TSV Testing 211

10.3 Post-Bond Interconnect Testing 220

10.4 Concluding Remarks 227

References 228

11 Pre-Bond Testing Through Direct Probing of Large-Array Fine-Pitch Micro-Bumps 231
Erik JanMarinissen, Bart DeWachter, Jörg Kiesewetter, and Ken Smith

11.1 Introduction 231

11.2 Pre-Bond Testing 232

11.3 Micro-Bumps 234

11.4 Probe Technology 236

11.5 Test Vehicle: Vesuvius-2.5D 239

11.6 Experiment Results 242

11.7 Conclusion 249

Acknowledgments 249

References 250

12 3D Design-for-Test Architecture 253
Erik JanMarinissen, Mario Konijnenburg, Jouke Verbree, Chun-Chuan Chi, Sergej Deutsch, Christos Papameletis, Tobias Burgherr, Konstantin Shibin, Brion Keller, Vivek Chickermane, and Sandeep K. Goel

12.1 Introduction 253

12.2 Basic 3D-DfT Architecture 254

12.3 Vesuvius-3D 3D-DfT Demonstrator 257

12.4 Extensions to the Basic 3D-DfT Architecture 265

12.5 Conclusion 276

Acknowledgments 276

References 277

13 Optimization of Test-Access Architectures and Test Scheduling for 3D ICs 281
Sergej Deutsch, Brandon Noia, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, and Erik Jan Marinissen

13.1 Uncertain Parameters in Optimization of 3D Test Architecture and Test Scheduling 282

13.2 Robust Optimization of 3D Test Architecture 285

13.3 Simulation Results 294

13.4 Conclusion 299

References 299

14 IEEE Std P1838: 3D Test Access Standard Under Development 301
Adam Cron, Erik Jan Marinissen, Sandeep K. Goel, TeresaMcLaurin, and Sandeep Bhatia

14.1 Introduction 301

14.2 Overview 303

14.3 Scope and Terminology 304

14.4 Serial Control 306

14.5 Die Wrapper Register 311

14.6 Flexible Parallel Port 317

14.7 Conclusion 322

References 322

15 Test and Debug Strategy for TSMC CoWoS®Stacking Process-Based Heterogeneous 3D-IC: A Silicon Study 325
Sandeep K. Goel, Saman Adham,Min-JerWang, Frank Lee, Vivek Chickermane, Brion Keller, Thomas Valind, and Erik Jan Marinissen

15.1 Introduction 325

15.2 Overview of CoWoS®Stacking Process 327

15.3 CoWoS®Chip Architecture 327

15.4 Test and Diagnosis Architecture 329

15.5 Testing of Passive Silicon Interposer 336

15.6 Experimental and Silicon Results 340

15.7 Conclusion 345

References 345

Part III Thermal Management 347

16 Thermal Isolation and Cooling Technologies for Heterogeneous 3D- and 2.5D-ICs 349
Yang Zhang, Hanju Oh, Yue Zhang, Li Zheng, Gary S.May, and Muhannad S. Bakir

16.1 Thermal Challenges for Heterogeneous 3D-ICs 349

16.2 Thermal Challenges and Solutions for 2.5D-ICs 359

16.3 Electrical and Fluidic Micro-Bumps 363

16.4 High Aspect Ratio TSVs Embedded in A Micro pin Fin Heat Sink 367

16.5 Conclusion 371

References 371

17 Passive and Active Thermal Technologies: Modeling and Evaluation 375
Craig E. Green, Vivek Sahu, Yuanchen Hu, Yogendra K. Joshi, and Andrei G. Fedorov

17.1 Introduction 375

17.2 Integrated Background Heat Sink Approaches 376

17.3 Solid-State Cooling 384

17.4 Passive Cooling: Phase Change Material Regeneration Concerns 393

References 409

18 Thermal Modeling and Model Validation for 3D Stacked ICs 413
Herman Oprins, Federica Maggioni, Vladimir Cherman, Geert Van der Plas, and Eric Beyne

18.1 Introduction 413

18.2 Modeling Methods for the Thermal Analysis of 3D Integrated Structures 413

18.3 3D Stacked Thermal Test Vehicles 421

18.4 Experimental Validation of Thermal Models for 3D-ICs 425

18.5 Inter-die Thermal Resistance 428

References 430

19 On the Thermal Management of 3D-ICs: From Backside to Volumetric Heat Removal 433
Thomas Brunschwiler, Gerd Schlottig, Chin L. Ong, Brian Burg, and Arvind Sridhar

19.1 Introduction: Density Scaling Drives Compute Performance and Efficiency 433

19.2 Thermal Management Landscape for 3D-ICs 434

19.3 Advances on Thermal Interfaces: Percolating Thermal Under fills 437

19.4 Single-Phase Interlayer Cooling: Design Rules toward Extreme 3D 438

19.5 Applicability of Two-Phase Cooling for 3D-ICs 443

19.6 Compact Thermal Modeling Framework 448

19.7 Consequence of Fluid Presence for the Package Topology 449

19.8 Thermal Laminates Enabling Dual-Side Cooling and Electrical Interconnects 453

Interconnects 455

References 456

Index 461