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Guidelines for Integrating Process Safety into Engineering Projects

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Guidelines for Integrating Process Safety into Engineering Projects

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

ISBN: 978-1-118-79507-1 December 2018 432 Pages

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Description

There is much industry guidance on implementing engineering projects and a similar amount of guidance on Process Safety Management (PSM). However, there is a gap in transferring the key deliverables from the engineering group to the operations group, where PSM is implemented. This book provides the engineering and process safety deliverables for each project phase along with the impacts to the project budget, timeline and the safety and operability of the delivered equipment.

List of Figure xvii

List of Tables xviii

Acronyms and Abbreviations xx

Glossary xxviii

Acknowledgments xxxii

Files on the Web xxxiv

Preface xxxvi

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background and Scope 2

1.2 Why Integrating Process Safety is Important 3

1.3 What Type of Projects Are Included? 5

1.4 Project Life Cycle 7

1.5 Relationship to Other Programs 10

1.6 Structure of this Document 13

2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES 16

2.1 Common Principles and Structure 16

2.1.1 Statement of Requirements 16

2.1.2 Project Scope 17

2.1.3 Basis of Design 17

2.1.4 Project Budget 18

2.1.5 Project Plan 18

2.1.6 Project Life Cycle 19

2.2 Project Management 20

2.3 Project Governance 21

2.4 Types of Project 22

2.4.1 Greenfield Projects 22

2.4.2 Brownfield Projects 22

2.4.3 Retrofit / Expansion Projects 23

2.4.4 Control System Upgrade Projects 24

2.4.5 Demolition Projects 24

2.4.6 Management of Change Projects 24

2.4.7 Mothballing Projects 25

2.4.8 Re-Commissioning Projects 25

2.4.9 Restarting a Project 25

2.4.10 Post-Incident Projects 26

2.5 Project Organization 26

2.5.1 Pre-Project Team 26

2.5.2 Typical Project Team 27

2.5.3 Unit Based Team 28

2.5.4 Equipment Based Team 28

2.5.5 Site Based Team 28

2.5.6 Small Projects 28

2.5.7 Roles and Responsibilities 29

2.6 Strategies for Implementation 32

2.6.1 Contractor Selection 35

2.6.2 Engineering Only 36

2.6.3 Engineering and Procurement 36

2.6.4 Engineering, Procurement and Construction 36

2.6.5 Operation 37

2.6.6 Contractor Oversight 37

2.7 Risk Management 38

2.8 Project Controls 40

2.8.1 Planning and Progress 40

2.8.2 Estimates, Budgets and Cost Control 41

2.8.3 Reporting 41

2.8.4 Metrics 41

2.8.5 Action Tracking 42

2.8.6 Change Management 42

2.9 Other Considerations 43

2.9.1 Materials Management 43

2.9.2 Quality Management 43

2.9.3 Lessons Learned 43

2.9.4 Post-Project Close-Out 44

2.10 Stage Gate Reviews 44

3 FRONT END LOADING 1 46

3.1 Preliminary Hazard Identification 48

3.2 Preliminary Inherently Safer Design Review 49

3.3 Concept Risk Analysis 51

3.4 Other Activities 52

3.4.1 Process Safety and EHS Plan 52

3.4.2 Risk Register 52

3.4.3 Action Tracking 52

3.5 Stage Gate Review 53

3.6 Summary 54

4 FRONT END LOADING 2 56

4.1 Evaluation of Development Options 58

4.1.1 Hazard Identification 59

4.1.2 Preliminary Inherently Safer Design Review 59

4.1.3 Concept Risk Analysis 60

4.1.4 Selection of the Development Option 60

4.2 Further Definition of the Selected Option 63

4.2.1 Design Hazard Management Process 63

4.2.2 Preliminary Inherently Safer Design (ISD) 68

4.2.3 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA) 68

4.2.4 Engineering Design Regulations, Codes, and Standards 69

4.2.5 Design Philosophies/Strategies 70

4.2.6 Preliminary Facility Siting Study 71

4.2.7 Preliminary Fire and Explosion Analysis 72

4.2.8 Transportation Studies 72

4.2.9 Preliminary Blowdown and Depressurization Study 74

4.2.10 Preliminary Fire & Gas Detection Study 74

4.2.11 Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis 74

4.2.12 Preliminary Firewater Analysis 75

4.2.13 Preliminary Security Vulnerability Analysis 75

4.2.14 Other Engineering Design Considerations 75

4.3 Other Activities 76

4.3.1 EHS and Process Safety Plan 76

4.3.2 Risk Register 76

4.3.3 Action Tracking 76

4.3.4 HIRA Strategy 76

4.3.5 Docum entation 77

4.3.6 Stage Gate Review 77

4.4 Summary 79

5 FRONT END LOADING 3 80

5.1 Evaluation of Development Options 82

5.2 Further Definition of the Selected Option 82

5.2.1 Design Hazard Management Process 84

5.2.2 Inherently Safer Design Optimization 85

5.2.3 Facility Siting and Layout 86

5.2.4 Refine Design Safety Measures 93

5.2.5 Set Performance Standards 94

5.2.6 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA) 95

5.2.7 Safety Assessments 102

5.2.8 Re-Evaluate Major Accident Risk 113

5.2.9 Finalize Important Safety Decisions 113

5.2.10 Finalize Basis of Design 113

5.3 Other Engineering Considerations 114

5.3.1 Asset Integrity Management 114

5.3.2 Quality Management 115

5.3.3 Contractor Selection 115

5.3.4 Brownfield Developments 116

5.4 Other Activities 116

5.4.1 EHS and Process Safety Plans 116

5.4.2 Risk Register 116

5.4.3 Action Tracking 116

5.4.4 Change Management 116

5.4.5 Documentation 117

5.4.6 Preparation for Project Execution 117

5.5 Case for Safety 119

5.6 Stage Gate Review 119

5.7 Summary 120

6 DETAILED DESIGN STAGE 121

6.1 Detailed Design 124

6.1.1 Design Hazard Management Process 124

6.1.2 Inherently Safer Design Optimization 125

6.1.3 Site Layout 126

6.1.4 Design Safety Measures 126

6.1.5 Set Performance Standards 127

6.1.6 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA) 127

6.1.7 Safety Assessments 128

6.1.8 Re-Evaluate Major Accident Risk 129

6.1.9 Other Design Reviews 129

6.2 Procurement 130

6.3 Asset Integrity Management 131

6.4 Other Process Safety Activities 132

6.4.1 Case For Safety 132

6.5 Other Project Activities 133

6.5.1 EHS and Process Safety Plans 133

6.5.2 Risk Register 134

6.5.3 Action Tracking 134

6.5.4 Change Management 134

6.5.5 Documentation 135

6.5.6 Constructability 136

6.5.7 Contractor Selection 137

6.6 Preparation for Construction 138

6.7 Preparation for Pre-Commissioning, Commissioning, and Startup 139

6.8 Stage Gate Review 140

6.9 Summary 141

7 CONSTRUCTION 143

7.1 Planning 146

7.2 Pre-Mobilization 147

7.3 Mobilization 149

7.4 Execution 150

7.4.1 Procurement 151

7.4.2 Fabrication 151

7.4.3 Safety Culture 151

7.4.4 Workforce Involvement 152

7.4.5 Stakeholder Outreach 152

7.4.6 Contractor Management 152

7.4.7 Transportation 153

7.4.8 Equipment and Materials Handling 153

7.4.9 Hazard Evaluation 154

7.4.10 Engineering Design 156

7.4.11 Safe Work Practices 157

7.4.12 Operating, EHS and Process Safety Procedures 159

7.4.13 Training and Competence Assurance 159

7.4.14 Asset Integrity Management 160

7.4.15 Change Management 161

7.4.16 Emergency Response 162

7.4.17 Incident Investigation 163

7.4.18 Auditing 164

7.4.19 Performance Measurement 164

7.4.20 Operations Case for Safety 165

7.4.21 Pre-Commissioning 166

7.4.22 Mechanical Completion 170

7.4.23 Documentation 171

7.5 Other Project Activities 172

7.5.1 EHS and Process Safety Plans 172

7.5.2 Risk Register 172

7.5.3 Action Tracking 172

7.5.4 General Construction Management 172

7.6 De-Mobilization 173

7.7 Preparation for Commissioning and Startup 174

7.8 Final Evaluation and Close-out 175

7.9 Stage Gate Review 175

7.10 Summary 177

8 QUALITY MANAGEMENT 178

8.1 Design/Engineering 183

8.2 Procurement 186

8.3 Fabrication 187

8.4 Receipt 189

8.5 Storage and Retrieval 190

8.6 Construction and Installation 191

8.7 Operation 193

8.8 Documentation 194

8.9 Summary 194

9 COMMISSIONING AND STARTUP 196

9.1 Preparation 199

9.1.1 Planning 199

9.1.2 Safety 201

9.2 Operational Readiness 202

9.2.1 Pre-Startup Stage Gate Review 203

9.2.2 Operational Readiness Review 204

9.2.3 Start-Up Efficiency Review 207

9.3 Commissioning 208

9.3.1 Equipment Testing 209

9.3.2 Commissioning Procedures 211

9.4 Startup 213

9.4.1 Preparation for Startup 213

9.4.2 Calibration of Instruments and Analyzers 213

9.4.3 Startup with Process Chemicals/Fluids 214

9.5 Common Process Safety Elements 215

9.5.1 Hazard Evaluation 215

9.5.2 Safe Work Practices 216

9.5.3 Procedures 217

9.5.4 Training and Competence Assurance 217

9.5.5 Management of Change 218

9.5.6 Incident Investigation 219

9.5.7 Emergency Response 220

9.5.8 Auditing 221

9.5.9 Documentation 221

9.5.10 Performance Measurement 222

9.6 Other Project Activities 222

9.6.1 EHS and Process Safety Plans 222

9.6.2 Risk Register 223

9.6.3 Action Tracking 223

9.7 Performance Test Runs 223

9.8 Handover 224

9.9 Preparation for Ongoing Operation 225

9.10 Project Close-Out 226

9.10.1 Close Out Report 226

9.10.2 Post-Project Evaluation 226

9.11 Summary 227

10 OPERATION 228

10.1 Process Safety Management System 231

10.1.1 Process Safety Culture 233

10.1.2 Compliance with Standards 233

10.1.3 Process Safety Competency 233

10.1.4 Workforce Involvement 234

10.1.5 Stakeholder Outreach 234

10.1.6 Process Knowledge Management 234

10.1.7 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 234

10.1.8 Operating Procedures 235

10.1.9 Safe Work Practices 235

10.1.10 Asset Integrity and Reliability 236

10.1.11 Contractor Management 238

10.1.12 Training and Performance Assurance 239

10.1.13 Management of Change 239

10.1.14 Operational Readiness 239

10.1.15 Conduct of Operations 240

10.1.16 Emergency Management 240

10.1.17 Incident Investigation 240

10.1.18 Measurement and Metrics 241

10.1.19 Auditing 242

10.1.20 Management Review and Continuous Improvement 242

10.1.21 EHS and Process Safety Procedures 243

10.2 Other Project Activities 243

10.2.1 EHS and Process Safety Plans 243

10.2.2 Risk Register 243

10.2.3 Action Tracking 243

10.3 Technical Support 243

10.4 Performance Test Runs 244

10.5 Operation Stage Gate R􀁆view 244

10.6 Post-Operational Review 245

10.7 Project Close-Out 246

10.8 Summary 246

11 END OF LIFE 247

11.1 Design for Decommissioning 249

11.2 Planning for Decommissioning 250

11.2.1 Engineering Survey 251

11.2.2 Hazard Evaluation 254

11.2.3 Hazardous Materials 254

11.2.4 Process Safety Plan 255

11.2.5 Utilities 255

11.2.6 Re-Engineering 256

11.3 Decommissioning Procedures 256

11.3.1 Late-Life Operations 257

11.3.2 Cessation of Production 258

11.3.3 Cleaning and Decontamination 258

11.3.4 Mothballed Facilities And Equipment 258

11.4 Deconstruction and Demolition 259

11.4.1 Deconstruction 259

11.4.2 Demolition 260

11.5 Process Safety for Decommissioning 261

11.5.1 Contractor Management 261

11.5.2 Safety Culture 262

11.5.3 Workforce Involvement 263

11.5.4 Stakeholder Outreach 263

11.5.5 Hazard Evaluation 263

11.5.6 Safe Work Practices 264

11.5.7 EHS and Process Safety Procedures 265

11.5.8 Training and Competence Assurance 266

11.5.9 Asset Integrity Management 267

11.5.10 Change Management 267

11.5.11 Operational Readiness Review 267

11.5.12 Emergency Management 268

11.5.13 Incident Investigation 269

11.5.14 Auditing 269

11.5.15 Disposal 270

11.5.16 Remediation 270

11.6 Other Project Activities 271

11.6.1 EHS and Process Safety Plans 271

11.6.2 Risk Register 271

11.6.3 Action Tracking 271

11.6.4 General Decommissioning Management 272

11.6.5 Stage Gate Reviews 272

11.7 Summary 274

12 DOCUMENTATION 275

12.1 Document Management 275

12.2 Process Knowledge Management 278

12.2.1 Front End Loading 1 Stage 278

12.2.2 Front End Loading 2 Stage 279

12.2.3 Front End Loading 3 Stage 280

12.2.4 Detailed Design Stage 281

12.2.5 Construction Stage 283

12.2.6 Commissioning and Startup Stage 286

12.2.7 Handover 287

12.2.8 Operation Stage 288

12.2.9 End of Life Stage 291

12.3 Summary 292

APPENDIX A. TYPICAL PROCESS SAFETY STUDIES OVER PROJECT LIFE CYCLE 293

APPENDIX B. PROJECT PROCESS SAFETY PLAN 295

APPENDIX C. TYPICAL HAZARD & RISK REGISTER 298

APPENDIX D. SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR PROCESS PLANTS 301

APPENDIX E. EXAMPLE OF SITE-SPECIFIC DECOMMISSIONING CHECKLIST / QUESTIONNAIRE 315

APPENDIX F. TYPICAL PROJECT DOCUMENTATION 322

APPENDIX G. STAGE GATE REVIEW PROTOCOL FOR PROCESS SAFETY 337

REFERENCES 365

INDEX 379