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""Times Are Altered with Us"": American Indians from First Contact to the New Republic



""Times Are Altered with Us"": American Indians from First Contact to the New Republic

Roger M. Carpenter

ISBN: 978-1-118-73325-7 January 2015 Wiley-Blackwell 312 Pages


"Times Are Altered with Us": American Indians from Contact to the New Republic offers a concise and engaging introduction to the turbulent 300-year-period of the history of Native Americans and their interactions with Europeans—and then Americans—from 1492 to 1800.
  • Considers the interactions of American Indians at many points of "First Contact" across North America, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts
  • Explores the early years of contact, trade, reciprocity, and colonization, from initial engagement of different Indian and European peoples—Spanish, French, Dutch, English, and Russian—up to the start of tenuous and stormy relations with the new American government
  • Charts the rapid decline in American Indian populations due to factors including epidemic Old World diseases, genocide and warfare by explorers and colonists, tribal warfare, and the detrimental effects of resource ruination and displacement from traditional lands
  • Features a completely up-to-date synthesis of the literature of the field
  • Incorporates useful student features, including maps, illustrations, and a comprehensive and evaluative Bibliographical Essay
  • Written in an engaging style by an expert in Native American history and designed for use in both the U.S. history survey as well as dedicated courses in Native American studies
List of Illustrations xi

List of Maps xiii

Introduction 1

1 1492 and Before 8

Before Europeans 8

Invasions of America 12

Rewriting “History” 15

The Bering Strait Theory 15

Culture Areas 17

The Development of Maize 19

The Southwest 19

The Eastern Woodlands 20

Native American Population before 1492 22

Native Americans and Old World Diseases 24

The Columbian Exchange 25

2 Encountering the Spanish 29

Pánfilo de Narváez 29

Cabeza de Vaca 34

The De Soto Expedition 37

Mabila 39

The Death of De Soto 40

Coronado 41

On to Quivera 43

Bartolomé de Las Casas 44

The Black Legend 44

La Florida 45

New Mexico 47

Acoma 48

Converting the Pueblo 48

The Pueblo Revolt 50

3 Encounters with the French 53

Verrazzano’s Voyage 55

Cartier 57

Huguenots in Florida 62

The Fur Trade 63

Champlain 64

War with the Iroquois 66

The Jesuits in Canada 68

Alcohol and Native People 72

La Salle and Louisiana 73

4 English and Native People in the Southeast 77

Ireland, the Foundation of English

Colonial Strategy 78

The West Countrymen 79

Roanoke 79

The Powhatan Confederacy 83

Jamestown 85

Opechancanough’s Wars 89

Bacon’s Rebellion 91

The Indian Slave Trade 94

The Yamasee War 98

5 Native Americans in New England 101

English Sassafras Hunters 103

John Smith Explores New England 104

The Separatists 105

Tisquantum 107

Thomas Morton and “Merre-mount” 109

The Pequot War 110

Miantonomi and Uncas 113

John Eliot and the Praying Towns 114

Metacom’s Rebellion 117

6 The Five Nations, the Dutch, and the Iroquois Wars 125

Hudson’s Voyage 126

The Dutch West India Company 129

New Netherland’s Two Indian Policies 130

The Mohawk–Mahican War 132

Dutch and Algonquins at New Amsterdam 134

Iroquois Economic Crisis and the Weakening of the Wendat 136

The Beaver Wars 140

The Grand Settlement of 1701 146

7 Seeking a Middle Ground 148

Pennsylvania 150

The Walking Purchase 153

The Iroquois Become Pennsylvania’s Enforcers 155

Into the Ohio Country 158

The Middle Ground 159

Native Americans as Military Proxies 161

8 The Imperial Wars 166

The Imperial Wars 167

The Treaty of Lancaster 173

Disputing the Ohio Country 175

Braddock’s Defeat 179

Lake George 180

Montcalm Takes Command 180

The Tide Turns against the French 182

The Cherokee War 184

9 Pontiac’s Rebellion 189

Neolin, the Delaware Prophet 189

The French Leave 192

The British Economize 194

Jeffery Amherst’s Indian Policy 195

Pontiac 197

The Siege of Detroit 200

Michilimackinac 202

Bloody Run 204

The Devil’s Hole 205

Bushy Run 206

The End of Pontiac’s Rebellion 208

The Proclamation of 1763 208

The Paxton Boys 209

Pontiac’s Fate 210

Flouting the Proclamation 211

10 The Great Plains and the Far West 212

The Plains 213

The Bison 215

The Arrival of the Horse 216

The Plains before the Horse 218

The Spread of Horses on the Plains 220

The Cultural Impact of Horses and Muskets 222

Smallpox in the West 223

The Plains Migrations 224

War over the Buffalo 226

Women’s Changing Roles and Status 228

The Environmental Impact of the Horse 229

The Russians 230

Spanish Missions in California 232

The English Arrive in the Pacific Northwest 235

11 Native Americans and the American Revolution 238

Appropriating Native Identity 240

Divisions among the Iroquois 241

Neutrality 243

Joseph Brant 244

Oriskany 247

American Allies 249

The Death of Cornstalk 252

A Generational Divide 253

“Monster Brant” 254

The Sullivan Campaign 255

Atrocity at Gnadenhütten 256

12 Coping with the New Republic 259

The Conquest Policy 259

Alliances with Europeans 261

The Northwest Confederacy 262

The End of the Conquest Policy 264

Harmer’s Defeat 265

St Clair’s Defeat 266

British Interference 269

Division in the Northwest Confederacy 271

Fallen Timbers 272

The Treaty of Greenville 273

The “Blessings of Civilization” 274

Spiritual Renewal 276

Bibliographical Essay 278

Index 287