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3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition

Mohamed Daoudi, Anuj Srivastava, Remco Veltkamp

ISBN: 978-1-118-59263-2 June 2013 224 Pages


3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application scenarios expected as the discipline develops further.

The book covers face acquisition through 3D scanners and 3D face pre-processing, before examining the three main approaches for 3D facial surface analysis and recognition: facial curves; facial surface features; and 3D morphable models. Whilst the focus of these chapters is fundamentals and methodologies, the algorithms provided are tested on facial biometric data, thereby continually showing how the methods can be applied.

Key features:
• Explores the underlying mathematics and will apply these mathematical techniques to 3D face analysis and recognition
• Provides coverage of a wide range of applications including biometrics, forensic applications, facial expression analysis, and model fitting to 2D images
• Contains numerous exercises and algorithms throughout the book

Preface ix

List of Contributors xiii

1 3D Face Modeling 1
Boulbaba Ben Amor, Mohsen Ardabilian and Liming Chen

1.1 Challenges and Taxonomy of Techniques 2

1.2 Background 3

1.3 Static 3D Face Modeling 7

1.4 Dynamic 3D Face Reconstruction 14

1.5 Summary and Conclusions 31

Exercises 33

References 35

2 3D Face Surface Analysis and Recognition Based on Facial Surface Features 39
Faisal Radhi M. Al-Osaimi and Mohammed Bennamoun

2.1 Geometry of 3D Facial Surface 39

2.2 Curvatures Extraction from 3D Face Surface 53

2.3 3D Face Segmentation 57

2.4 3D Face Surface Feature Extraction and Matching 59

2.5 Deformation Modeling of 3D Face Surface 71

Exercises 73

References 74

3 3D Face Surface Analysis and Recognition Based on Facial Curves 77
Hassen Drira, Stefano Berretti, Boulbaba Ben Amor, Mohamed Daoudi, Anuj Srivastava, Alberto del Bimbo and Pietro Pala

3.1 Introduction 77

3.2 Facial Surface Modeling 78

3.3 Parametric Representation of Curves 80

3.4 Facial Shape Representation Using Radial Curves 81

3.5 Shape Space of Open Curves 81

3.6 The Dense Scalar Field (DSF) 90

3.7 Statistical Shape Analysis 94

3.8 Applications of Statistical Shape Analysis 98

3.9 The Iso-geodesic Stripes 103

Exercises 114

Glossary 116

References 117

4 3D Morphable Models for Face Surface Analysis and Recognition 119
Frank B. ter Haar and Remco Veltkamp

4.1 Introduction 120

4.2 Data Sets 121

4.3 Face Model Fitting 122

4.4 Dynamic Model Expansion 129

4.5 Face Matching 141

4.6 Concluding Remarks 144

Exercises 145

References 146

5 Applications 149
Stefano Berretti, Boulbaba Ben Amor, Hassen Drira, Mohamed Daoudi, Anuj Srivastava, Alberto del Bimbo and Pietro Pala

5.1 Introduction 149

5.2 3D Face Databases 150

5.3 3D Face Recognition 157

5.4 Facial Expression Analysis 170

5.5 4D Facial Expression Recognition 184

Exercises 192

Glossary 193

References 198

Index 203