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5G Explained: Security and Deployment of Advanced Mobile Communications

5G Explained: Security and Deployment of Advanced Mobile Communications

Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

ISBN: 978-1-119-27568-8 May 2019 328 Pages

 Hardcover

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$130.00

Description

Practical Guide Provides Students and Industry Professionals with Latest Information on 5G Mobile Networks

Continuing the tradition established in his previous publications, Jyrki Penttinen offers 5G Explained as a thorough yet concise introduction to recent advancements and growing trends in mobile telecommunications. In this case, Penttinen focuses on the development and employment of 5G mobile networks and, more specifically, the challenges inherent in adjusting to new global standardization requirements and in maintaining a high level of security even as mobile technology expands to new horizons. The text discusses, for example, the Internet of Things (IoT) and how to keep networks reliable and secure when they are constantly accessed by many different devices with varying levels of user involvement and competence.

5G Explained is primarily designed for specialists who need rapid acclimation to the possibilities and concerns presented by 5G adoption. Therefore, it assumes some prior knowledge of mobile communications. However, earlier chapters are structured so that even relative newcomers will gain useful information. Other notable features include:

  • Three modules each consisting of three chapters: Introduction, Technical Network Description and Planning of Security and Deployment
  • Comprehensive coverage of topics such as technical requirements for 5G, network architecture, radio and core networks and services/applications
  • Discussion of specific security techniques in addition to common-sense guidelines for planning, deploying, managing and optimizing 5G networks

5G Explained offers crucial updates for anyone involved in designing, deploying or working with 5G networks. It should prove a valuable guide for operators, equipment manufacturers and other professionals in mobile equipment engineering and security, network planning and optimization, and mobile application development, or anyone looking to break into these fields.

 Preface

Achnowledgements

Abrevations list

1 Introduction 10

1.1 Overview 10

1.2 What is 5G? 11

1.3 Background 12

1.4 Research 13

1.5 Challenges for electronics 13

1.6 Expected 5G in practice 14

1.7 5G and security 15

1.8 Motivations 16

1.9 5G standardization and regulation 16

1.9.1 ITU 16

1.9.2 3GPP 18

1.10 Global standardization in 5G era 20

1.10.1 GlobalPlatform 20

1.10.2 ITU 20

1.10.3 IETF 21

1.10.4 3GPP/3GPP2 21

1.10.5 ETSI 21

1.10.6 IEEE 21

1.10.7 SIMalliance 22

1.10.8 Smart Card Alliance 22

1.10.9 GSMA 22

1.10.10 NIST 22

1.10.11 NHTSA 23

1.10.12 ISO/IEC 23

1.10.13 ISO/IEC JTC1 23

1.10.14 OMA 23

1.10.15 CEPT/ECC 23

1.10.16 NERC 24

1.10.17 OWASP 24

1.10.18 OneM2M 24

1.10.19 Global Standards Collaboration 24

1.10.20 CSA 24

1.10.21 NGMN 25

1.10.22 Car-to-Car Communication Consortium 25

1.10.23 5GAA 25

1.10.24 Trusted Computing Group 25

1.10.25 InterDigital 25

1.11 Introduction to the book 26

2 Requirements 31

2.1 Overview 31

2.2 Background 32

2.3 5G requirements based on ITU 33

2.3.1 Process 33

2.3.2 Documents 35

2.3.3 Peak data rate 36

2.3.4 Peak spectral efficiency 37

2.3.5 User experienced data rate 37

2.3.6 5th percentile user spectral efficiency 37

2.3.7 Average spectral efficiency 37

2.3.8 Area traffic capacity 38

2.3.9 Latency 38

2.3.10 Connection density 38

2.3.11 Energy efficiency 38

2.3.12 Reliability 39

2.3.13 Mobility 39

2.3.14 Mobility interruption time 39

2.3.15 Bandwidth 39

2.4 The technical specifications of 3GPP 40

2.4.1 Releases 40

2.4.2 Security requirements for 5G 41

2.5 NGMN 49

2.5.1 User experience 49

2.5.2 Device Requirements 51

2.5.3 Enhanced Services 51

2.5.4 The 5G security 52

2.6 Mobile Network Operators 54

2.7 Mobile Device Manufacturers 54

3 Positioning of 5G 58

3.1 Overview 58

3.2 Mobile Generations 58

3.2.1 1G 59

3.2.2 2G 60

3.2.3 3G 60

3.2.4 4G 61

3.2.5 5G 62

3.3 The role of 3GPP in LPWA and IoT 67

3.3.1 Overall LPWA market landscape 67

3.3.2 General IoT requirements 68

3.3.3 LTE-IoT mode comparison 69

3.3.4 Statistics and projections 70

3.3.5 Standardization 70

3.3.6 Deployments 71

3.3.7 Comparison of LPWAs 72

3.3.8 Security aspects of IoT devices 72

3.3.9 What will 5G offer in IoT landscape vs. Non-IMSI LPWA? 74

3.4 The role of 5G in automotive (V2X) 74

3.5 The role of 5G in Cyber World 75

3.5.1 Introduction 75

3.5.2 Cyber and IoT 75

3.5.3 What Cyber is? 76

3.5.4 Standardization 77

3.5.5 Origin and Development 78

3.5.6 Machine learning and AI in 5G 79

4 Architecture 83

4.1 Overview 83

4.1.1 Architecture of the previous 3GPP generations 84

4.1.2 Architecture options for 5G 86

4.2 Gradual deployment of 5G 89

4.2.1 5G User and Control Plane 91

4.3 NG-RAN architecture 93

4.3.1 Interfaces 93

4.3.2 Functions of gNB and ng-eNB 94

4.4 5G system architecture 95

4.4.1 Network Functions (NF) 95

4.4.2 Architecture of 5G 96

4.5 Renewed functionality of the 5G system 105

4.5.1 Network Slicing 105

4.5.2 Network Function Virtualization 109

4.5.3 Open Source 110

4.5.4 Mobile Edge Computing 110

4.5.5 All-IP Technology 111

4.5.6 Service based architecture 111

4.6 Supporting solutions for 5G 111

4.6.1 Adaptive antennas 111

4.6.2 SON 111

4.6.3 QoS in 5G 112

4.7 Control and User Plane Separation of EPC nodes (CUPS) 114

5 Radio Network 119

5.1 Overview 119

5.2 5G performance 120

5.2.1 General 120

5.2.2 Radio performance figures 120

5.3 5G spectrum 121

5.3.1 Overall advances of 5G frequencies 121

5.3.2 ITU-R WRC-19 Expectations 122

5.3.3 5G Bands 122

5.4 5G Radio Access Technologies 127

5.4.1 Key specifications 127

5.4.2 Frequency bands 128

5.4.3 5G channel modeling 128

5.4.4 Radio technology principles 129

5.4.5 OFDM Transceiver Chain 132

5.4.6 Cyclic prefix 133

5.4.7 Channel Estimation and Equalization 135

5.4.8 Modulation 138

5.4.9 Coding 138

5.4.10 Signal processing chain 139

5.5 Uplink OFDM of 5G: CP-OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM 139

5.6 Downlink 140

5.7 New Radio (NR) interface of 3GPP 141

5.7.1 Radio network architecture and interfaces 142

5.7.2 5G network elements 143

5.7.3 Modulation 145

5.7.4 Frame structure 146

5.7.5 Physical Channels 146

5.7.6 General protocol architecture 147

5.7.7 Multiple access 148

5.7.8 4.2.3 Channel coding 148

5.7.9 4.2.4 Physical layer procedures 148

5.7.10 4.2.5 Physical layer measurements 148

5.7.11 Quality of Service 148

5.8 User devices 149

5.9 Other aspects 149

5.10 CBRS 149

5.10.1 Background 149

5.10.2 Use cases for CBRS 150

5.10.3 The Concept 151

5.10.4 Frequency sharing 151

5.10.5 CBRS interface 152

6 Core Network 155

6.1 Overview 155

6.2 Preparing the core for 5G 157

6.2.1 Cloud-concept 157

6.2.2 Data center as a base for 5G architecture 157

6.2.3 Service level assurance 159

6.2.4 Resiliency 162

6.2.5 Redundancy 164

6.2.6 Recovery classes 165

6.2.7 Connectivity Service Network 167

6.2.8 Network as a Service 167

6.2.9 Security certification of 5G SIM and subscription management 168

6.2.10 Security certification of data centers 169

6.3 5G core network elements 170

6.3.1 5G-EIR 171

6.3.2 AF 171

6.3.3 AMF 172

6.3.4 AUSF 172

6.3.5 LMF 172

6.3.6 N3IWF 173

6.3.7 NEF 173

6.3.8 NRF 174

6.3.9 NSSF 175

6.3.10 NWDAF 175

6.3.11 PCF 176

6.3.12 SEPP 176

6.3.13 SMF 177

6.3.14 SMSF 178

6.3.15 UDM 179

6.3.16 UDR 180

6.3.17 UDSF 180

6.3.18 UPF 181

6.4 5G functionalities implemented in 5G core 181

6.4.1 Network slicing 181

6.4.2 SDN 183

6.4.3 NFV 183

6.4.4 Optimization of the core and transport 184

6.4.5 Cloud RAN 184

6.4.6 User and data plane separation 186

6.5 Transport network 187

6.5.1 Conceptual examples 188

6.6 Protocols and interfaces 189

6.6.1 RAN 190

6.6.2 Layers 191

6.6.3 Layer 1 192

6.6.4 Layer 2 192

6.6.5 Layer 3 193

6.6.6 The split-architecture of RAN 193

6.6.7 Core network protocols 194

6.6.8 Control Plane protocols 195

6.6.9 User Plane protocols 201

6.7 5G core network services 203

7 Services and Applications 207

7.1 Overview 207

7.2 Network procedures 208

7.2.1 General 208

7.2.2 5G states 209

7.3 5G services 210

7.3.1 Registration and mobility management 210

7.3.2 Connection establishment: Session management 210

7.4 Specific 5G services 212

7.4.1 IMS call 212

7.4.2 SMS 212

7.4.3 Public warning system 212

7.4.4 Location based services 212

7.5 Dual connectivity 216

7.6 Network function -related cases 216

7.6.1 Network exposure 216

7.6.2 Policy 216

7.6.3 Network function service framework 216

7.7 V2I 216

7.7.1 How V2V works? 217

7.7.2 V2V system overview 217

7.7.3 V2V reference architecture 218

7.7.4 Development of V2X 219

7.7.5 Security 219

7.7.6 NHTSA requirements 219

7.7.7 IEEE 802.11p vs. LTE-based short-range communications 219

7.7.8 Security threats 221

7.7.9 MNO role in V2V 221

7.7.10 Markets for Peer to Peer and Cellular connectivity 222

7.8 Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence 222

8 Security 225

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Overview 226

8.3 5G Security Threats and Challenges 228

8.3.1 Trends 228

8.3.2 Needs in mobile environment 229

8.3.3 Network Slicing 230

8.3.4 Network Virtualization 231

8.3.5 Open Source 231

8.3.6 Mobile Edge Computing and All IP 232

8.3.7 Other 5G safety considerations 232

8.4 Development 233

8.4.1 LTE Evolution 233

8.4.2 NB-IoT vs. Low Power Wide Area 233

8.4.3 Ramping up 5G 233

8.5 Security implications in 5G environments and use cases 234

8.5.1 Network Operations 234

8.5.2 Enhanced Mobile Broadband 235

8.5.3 Massive Internet of Things 236

8.5.4 Critical Communications 238

8.6 5G Security Layers 239

8.7 Device Security 241

8.7.1 Differentiating the Devices 241

8.7.2 Spectrum 241

8.7.3 Number of applications 241

8.7.4 Type of network 242

8.7.5 Type of access 242

8.7.6 Type of credential 242

8.7.7 Device to Network Security 242

8.7.8 Device-to-Service and Device-to-Application Security 244

8.7.9 Device-to-Device Security 245

8.7.10 Device-to-User Security 245

8.7.11 Summary of the Device Security Requirements 245

8.8 Security between Network Entities 246

8.8.1 Protection of the Mobile Edge 246

8.8.2 Authentication Framework 247

8.9 Security opportunities for stakeholders 247

8.9.1 Evolution of the SIM – Scalable Device Security 247

8.9.2 Protecting the Mobile Edge 248

8.9.3 Providing Virtualized Network Components 248

8.9.4 Solutions for Closed Networks 248

8.10 5G Security Architecture for 3GPP Networks 249

8.10.1 Network security functions and elements 249

8.10.2 Key hierarchy 251

8.10.3 5G identifiers 253

8.10.4 PKI scheme 254

8.10.5 Security procedures 256

8.11 UICC evolution 259

8.11.1 General 259

8.11.2 SW-based security 262

8.12 5G security development 262

8.12.1 General 262

8.13 UICC variants 263

8.13.1 UICC 263

8.13.2 eUICC 263

8.13.3 vUICC 263

8.13.4 iUICC 264

8.13.5 Benefits and role of iUICC 264

8.13.6 iUICC Standardization 264

8.13.7 The UICC in the 5G era 266

8.13.8 UICC profiles in 5G 267

8.13.9 Changes in authentication 268

8.13.10 5G UICC security 268

8.13.11 Legacy UICC compatibility with 5G 269

8.13.12 iUICC components 270

8.13.13 The components for iUICC data loading 271

9 5G Network Planning and Optimization 274

9.1 Overview 274

9.2 5G core and transmission network dimensioning 274

9.2.1 Capacity estimation 274

9.2.2 Transport 277

9.2.3 Effect of network slicing 279

9.3 5G radio network planning 279

9.3.1 Radio channel modeling 279

9.3.2 5G Radio Link Budget considerations 280

9.3.3 5G radio link budged in bands above 6 GHz 285

10 Deployment 291

10.1 Overview 291

10.2 Trials and early adopters prior to 2020 291

10.2.1 Verizon Wireless 291

10.2.2 AT&T 292

10.2.3 DoCoMo 292

10.2.4 Telia Company 292

10.2.5 European Union 292

10.3 5G frequency bands 292

10.4 Core and radio network deployment scenarios 293

10.4.1 Non-centralized 293

10.4.2 Co-sited with E-UTRA 294

10.4.3 Centralized deployment 294

10.4.4 Shared RAN 295

10.4.5 Heterogeneous deployment 296

10.5 Standalone and Non-Standalone deployment scenarios 296

10.5.1 Standalone 4G/5G RAN and NGC 297

10.5.2 Non-Standalone 5G NR with 4G EPS 297

10.5.3 Non-Standalone 5G NR with 5G NGC 298

10.5.4 Non-Standalone 4G E-UTRA with 5G NGC 299

10.5.5 Deployment scenarios of gNB/en-gNB 300

10.6 5G network interfaces and elements 301

10.6.1 Interfaces 301

10.6.2 5G functional elements 302

10.7 Core deployment 303

10.7.1 Initial phase: reusing existing infrastructure 304

10.8 CoMP 308

10.9 Measurements 309

10.9.1 Overall view 309

10.9.2 Measurement principles of 5G 310

10.9.3 NGPaaS 312