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A Biographical History of Endocrinology

A Biographical History of Endocrinology

ISBN: 978-1-119-20255-4

Feb 2016, Wiley-Blackwell

504 pages

$108.99

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Description

Establishing endocrinology as a distinct medical specialty was no easy task. This engaging volume chronicles the journey through the stories of the men –and occasional women—who shaped the specialty through the ages.

In 108 brief chapters, A Biographical History of Endocrinology illuminates the progress of endocrinology from Hippocrates to the modern day. The author highlights important leaders and their contributions to the field, including these early pioneers:
  • Kos and Alexandria, and the first human anatomy
  • Bartolomeo Eustachi and the adrenal gland
  • Richard Lower and the pituitary gland
  • Thomas Addison and adrenal insufficiency
  • Franz Leydig and testosterone secreting cells
  • Wiliam Stewart Halsted and surgery of the thyroid gland
  • John J. Abel and isolation of hormones
  • Hakaru Hashimoto and his disease

Covering all the watershed moments in the history of the profession, the book identifies key figures whose contributions remain relevant today. Their fascinating stories of experiments and studies, advocacy and adversity, and exploring unknown territory will inspire the next generation of endocrinologists and satisfy every clinician who ever wondered "how did we get here?"

This comprehensive yet concise biographical history of endocrinology will benefit not only practicing and prospective endocrinologists, but also other medical specialists and medical historians.

Preface xxi

Chapter 1 Diabetes and the Ebers Papyrus (1552 B.C.E.) 1
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 2 The Greek Myths and the First Physicians (1100 B.C.E.) 3
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 3 Kos and Alexandria (400 B.C.E.–400 C.E.) – The First Human Anatomy 6
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 4 Hippocrates (400 B.C.E) – Western Medicine Begins 11
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 5 Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) – Experiments of Nature 17
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 6 Soranus of Ephesus (98–138 C.E.) – Obstetrics and Gynecology 20
Leon Speroff

Chapter 7 Aretaeus of Cappadocia (First and Second Centuries C.E.) 23
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 8 Galen (130–200) – The First “Human Anatomy” 28
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 9 Avicenna (980–1037 C.E.) – Preservation of “Classical” Medicine 32
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 10 Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) – The Renaissance in Medicine 36
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 11 Bartolomeo Eustachi (Eustachius) (1520–1574) – The Adrenal Gland 39
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 12 Santorio Santorio (1561–1636) – Insensible Loss 41
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 13 William Harvey (1578–1657) – The First Great Experiment, “De Motu Cordis” 44
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 14 Thomas Wharton (1614–1673) – Codifying the Glands 49
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 15 Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694) – The Capillary 55
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 16 Richard Lower (1631–1691) – The Pituitary Gland 58
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 17 Regnier de Graaf (1641–1673) – The Graafian Follicle 61
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 18 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) – The First of the Great Microscopists 69
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 19 John Hunter (1728–1793) – Embryology of the Hind 72
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 20 Caleb Hillier Parry (1755–1822) – Thyrotoxicosis 77
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 21 Thomas Addison (1795–1860) – Adrenal Insufficiency 82
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 22 Robert James Graves (1796–1853) – Thyrotoxicosis 85
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 23 Armand Trousseau (1801–1867) – Diabetes Insipidus 88
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 24 Arnold Adolph Berthold (1803–1861) – Transplantation of Testes 91
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 25 Claude Bernard (1813–1878) – The Discovery of Homeostasis and Internal Secretion 97
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 26 Adolphe Chatin (1813–1901) – Iodine in the Prevention of Goiter 100
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 27 Sir James Paget (1814–1899) – Osteitis Deformans 105
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 28 Sir William Gull (1816–1890) – Adult Cretinism and “Jack the Ripper” 114
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 29 Charles]Edouard Brown]Séquard (1817–1894) – Glandular Extract Therapy 123
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 30 Franz Leydig (1821–1908) – Testosterone Secreting Cells 126
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 31 Adolf Kussmaul (1822–1902) – Ketoacidosis 128
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Chapter 32 Jean]Martin Charcot (1825–1893) – Exophthalmic Goiter 130
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 33 Jean Baptiste Boussingault (1802–1887) – Iodine and the Goiter 135
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 34 Bernhard Naunyn (1839–1925) – Dietary Treatment of Diabetes 140
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 35 Enrico Sertoli (1842–1910) – Gametes and the Testes 143
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 36 William Osler (1849–1919) – Treatment of Addison’s Disease 145
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 37 Emil Fischer (1852–1919) – The Stereochemical Nature of Sugars 150
James Magner

Chapter 38 William Stewart Halsted (1852–1922) – Surgery of the Thyroid Gland 153
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 39 Charles Eucharist de Medicis Sajous (1852–1929) – The First President of the Endocrine Society 160
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 40 Pierre Marie (1853–1940) – Acromegaly 165
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 41 Victor Horsley (1857–1916) – Treating Myxedema with Thyroid Extract 167
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 42 Archibald Edward Garrod (1857–1936) – Orchronosis and Human Genetics 170
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 43 John J. Abel (1857–1938) – Isolation of Hormones 174
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 44 Oskar Minkowski (1858–1931) – Diabetes and the Pancreas 182
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Chapter 45 Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861–1947) – Vitamin(e)s and Biochemistry 184
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 46 George R. Murray (1865–1939) – Treatment of Hypothyroidism 191
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 47 William Bayliss and Ernest Starling (1860–1924) (1866–1927) – Molecular Messengers 195
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 48 Harvey Williams Cushing (1869–1939) – Pituitary Basophilism 202
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 49 Leo Loeb and Max Aron (1869–1959) (1892–1974) – Thyrotropin 207
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 50 W.G. MacCallum (1874–1944) – Tetany and the Parathyroid Gland 212
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 51 Moses Barron (1883–1974) – Pancreatic Duct Stone 216
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 52 Frederick Grant Banting (1891–1941) – The Discovery of Insulin 220
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Chapter 53 James Bertram Collip (1893–1965) – Isolation of Insulin 225
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Chapter 54 Frederick Madison Allen (1879–1964) – The Diabetic Diet 229
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 55 Elliott Proctor Joslin (1869–1962) – Insulin and the Treatment of Diabetes 231
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 56 J.J.R. Macleod (1876–1935) – Discovery of Insulin 234
Michael Bliss

Chapter 57 Frederick L. Hisaw (1891–1972) – Relaxin 245
Clark T. Sawin and Harry K. Ziel

Chapter 58 Henry S. Plummer (1874–1936) – Toxic Nodular Thyroid Gland 251
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 59 Henry H. Dale (1875–1968) – Catecholamines 256
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 60 Robert McCarrison (1878–1960) – Iodine Deficiency and Goiter 264
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 61 Hakaru Hashimoto (1881–1934) – His Disease 269
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 62 Eugene F. DuBois (1882–1959) – Basal Metabolism and the Thyroid 274
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 63 Herbert McLean Evans (1882–1971) – Pituitary Hormones 279
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 64 Philip E. Smith (1884–1970) – Trophic Hormones of the Pituitary 284
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 65 Edward C. Kendall (1886–1972) – Structures of Cortisol and Thyroxin 288
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 66 David Marine (1880–1976) – Iodine and Goiter 292
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 67 George Washington Corner (1889–1981) – Progesterone 297
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 68 Henry H. Turner (1892–1970) – Gonadal Dysgenesis 302
Ron Rosenfeld

Chapter 69 Ernest Basil Verney (1894–1967) – Vasopressin is a Hormone 306
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 70 Gerty and Carl Cori (1896–1957) (1896–1984) – Glucose Metabolism and Lactic Acid 311
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 71 Charles Robert Harington (1897–1972) – Synthesis of Thyroxine 316
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 72 Dorothy Price and Carl Moore (1899–1980) (1892–1955) – Regulation of Gonadal Hormone Secretion 320
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 73 Fuller Albright (1900–1969) – Uncharted Seas 325
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 74 Charles Brenton Huggins (1901–1997) – Androgen Ablation Therapy for Prostate Cancer 331
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 75 Vincent du Vigneaud (1901–1978) – Antidiuretic Hormone 333
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Chapter 76 Russell Earl Marker (1902–1995) – The Mexican Yam 335
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 77 Gregory Goodwin Pincus (1903–1967) – The Birth Control Pill 338
Leon Speroff

Chapter 78 G.F. Marrian (1904 –1981) – Isolation of Estrogens 344
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 79 Berta and Ernst Scharrer (1906–1995) (1905–1965) – Concept of Neurosecretion 348
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 80 Ulf Svante von Euler (1905–1983) – Neurosecretion of Norepinephrine 354
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 81 Saul Hertz (1905–1950) – Radioactive Iodine and the Treatment of Graves’ Disease 360
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 82 George Widmer Thorn (1906–2004) – The Treatment of Addison’s Disease 364
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 83 Hans Hugo Bruno Selye (1907–1982) – Stress and the Endocrine System 368
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 84 Jerome W. Conn (1907–1994) – Adrenal Mediated High Blood Pressure 371
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 85 Frank G. Young (1908–1988) – The Pituitary Gland and Diabetes Mellitus 373
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 86 Edwin B. Astwood (1909–1976) – Radioiodine Treatment for Thyrotoxicosis 379
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 87 Roy Hertz (1909–2002) – Cure of Choriocarcinoma 384
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 88 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910–1994) – The Structure of Insulin 387
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 89 Harry F. Klinefelter (1912–1990) – Genetic Hypogonadism 390
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 90 Julius Axelrod (1912–2004) – Epinephrine Synthesis, Secretion, and Reuptake 393
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 91 Geoffrey W. Harris (1913–1967) – The Brain’s Control of the Pituitary Gland 399
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 92 Frederic C. Bartter (1914–1983) – Disorders of “The Pump” 406
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 93 Earl W. Sutherland (1915–1974) – Discovery of Cyclic AMP 411
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 94 Maurice S. Raben (1915–1977) – The Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency 418
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 95 Alfred Jost (1916–1991) – Sexual Ambiguity 424
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 96 Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979) – Synthesis of Cholesterol 426
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 97 Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait (1917–2003) – Steroid Metabolism 428
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Chapter 98 Solomon Berson (1918–1972) – Radioimmunoassay 430
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 99 Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921–2011) – Radioimmunoassay 433
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 100 Mort Lipsett (1921–1984) – The Syndromes of Adrenal Insufficiency 436
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 101 Griff Terry Ross (1921–1985) – The β Subunit of hCG 439
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 102 Grant Liddle (1921–1989) – Differential Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome 442
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 103 Monte Arnold Greer (1922–2002) – Thyroid Nodules 444
Clark T. Sawin

Chapter 104 Jacob Robbins (1923–2008) – Radiation]Induced Thyroid Cancer 452
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 105 Donald S. Fredrickson (1924–2002) – Lipid Dyscrasiasis 455
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 106 John Doppman (1928–2000) – Interventional Radiology 458
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 107 Gerald Aurbach (1927–1991) – Parathormone 461
D. Lynn Loriaux

Chapter 108 Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally (1924–) (1926–) – The Hypothalamic]Releasing Hormones 464
D. Lynn Loriaux

Criticism 469

Index 471