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A Fishery Manager's Guidebook, 2nd Edition



A Fishery Manager's Guidebook, 2nd Edition

Kevern L. Cochrane (Editor), Dr Serge M. Garcia (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-444-31632-2 July 2009 Wiley-Blackwell 536 Pages

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Co-published with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Fisheries management is the process that has evolved to try to ensure that fisheries operate in a manner that provides the immediate benefits in a sustainable manner. The widely accepted goal is that the full range of benefits should not only be available for this generation but for generations to come. Fisheries management has been successful in some cases but there have also been many, many cases of failure.

This volume is intended to contribute to improving this unsatisfactory state by addressing the widespread need for information and guidance on the broad and often complex task of fisheries management. It is an updated and expanded edition of the first version of “A fishery manager’s guidebook” which was published as a FAO Fisheries Technical Paper in 2002.

The major part of this new edition is divided into five parts intended to cover the range of concerns, tools and techniques essential to the modern fisheries manager, whether that manager is an individual or a formal or informal group. Following the Introduction:

  • Part I examines the primary dimensions of fisheries: biological, ecological, social and economic
  • Part II looks at the legal and institutional characteristics of fisheries
  • Part III explores the tools that fishery managers have to achieve the objectives expected from a fishery
  • Part IV discusses the role of scientific information of indicators and reference points
  • Part V moves into implementation of fisheries management and includes a chapter on special considerations in small-scale fisheries

This landmark publication is aimed at fishery managers and scientists. All libraries in research establishments and universities where fisheries and aquatic sciences are studied and taught will need copies of this important volume.

Fisheries around the world make essential contributions to human well-being including the provision of basic food supplies, employment, recreational opportunities, foreign currency and others, providing benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Despite these benefits, our record of managing fisheries so that the benefits can be sustained has been poor, at best, and most fisheries around the world are experiencing serious ecological, social or economic problems and usually all three. Today there is global concern about the state of fishery resources and aquatic ecosystems, their resilience to future stresses such as climate change and their ability to continue to provide benefits.

Contributors xi

Preface xiii

List of Acronyms xv

Chapter 1 Introduction – Fisheries Management 1
Kevern L. Cochrane and Serge Michel Garcia

1.1 Why do we need this handbook? 1

1.2 What is fisheries management? 2

1.3 The fisheries manager 4

1.4 Fisheries management and fisheries governance 6

1.5 Some working principles for fisheries management 6

1.6 An objective-driven process 7

1.7 Management plans, measures and strategies 9

1.8 The structure of this guidebook 10

Sources and recommended reading 16

Part I The Primary Dimensions of Fisheries

Chapter 2 Biology and Ecology Considerations for the Fishery Manager 21
Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Why marine resource managers need to know about biology and ecology 24

2.3 What managers need to know about biology and ecology 25

2.4 Emerging issues 45

2.5 Concluding comments 50

Acknowledgements 50

Sources and recommended reading 50

Web resources 51

Chapter 3 Social Aspects of Fisheries Management 52
Fikret Berkes

3.1 Introduction 52

3.2 Dealing with the ‘tragedy of the commons’ 53

3.3 Changing perspectives on resource management 57

3.4 Fisheries as linked social–ecological systems 58

3.5 Why broaden management objectives? 60

3.6 Is fishers’ knowledge relevant to management? 63

3.7 Why are institutions important? 65

3.8 The broader issues of fisheries governance 67

3.9 Synthesis and outlook 69

Acknowledgements 73

Sources and recommended reading 73

Web resources 74

Chapter 4 Economic Principles: An Economic Perspective on Fishing 75
Arne Eide

4.1 An economic approach to fisheries 75

4.2 Bioeconomic reasoning and reference equilibriums 83

4.3 An economic perspective on fisheries regulations 90

4.4 Fisheries development 96

4.5 Synthesis 100

Sources and recommended reading 101

Part II Legal and Institutional Considerations

Chapter 5 Legal Aspects 105
Blaise Kuemlangan

5.1 Introduction 105

5.2 Fisheries law 107

5.3 Fisheries management regime in the legal framework 114

5.4 Monitoring, control and surveillance 123

5.5 Significant issues and their legal aspects 128

5.6 Law review and the manager 131

5.7 Synthesis and outlook 132

Sources and recommended reading 133

Web resources 134

Chapter 6 The Fishery Management Institutions 135
François Feral

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 The manager in the institutional environment 136

6.3 Institutional environment and decision-making 146

6.4 Synthesis 160

Sources and recommended reading 161

Additional reading 162

Web resources 163

Part III Management Measures and Tools

Chapter 7 Regulation of Fishing Gears and Methods 167
Åsmund Bjordal

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Fishing gears 168

7.3 Passive fishing gears 168

7.4 Active fishing gears 176

7.5 Gear selectivity and ecosystem effects of fishing 183

7.6 Management considerations: selectivity and other ecosystem effects of fishing 192

7.7 Synthesis and outlook 193

Sources and recommended reading 194

Chapter 8 Area and Time Restrictions 196
Stephen J. Hall

8.1 What are area and time restrictions? 196

8.2 Why would you establish area or time restrictions? 197

8.3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of area and time restrictions? 202

8.4 Case studies 204

8.5 What are the practical steps towards establishing time and area restrictions? 211

8.6 Synthesis and outlook 217

Sources and recommended reading 218

Chapter 9 Input and Output Controls: The Practice of Fishing Effort and Catch Management in Responsible Fisheries 220
John G. Pope

9.1 Introduction 220

9.2 What are input and output controls? 222

9.3 Why would you want to use effort or catch management? 223

9.4 How would you impose fishing effort management and catch management? 225

9.5 What structures do you need for effort and catch management? 236

9.6 What problems exist with the application of effort management and catch management and how might they be circumvented? 239

9.7 Where can you see examples of effort management and catch management in action? 247

9.8 Synthesis and outlook 249

Sources and recommended reading and web resources 250

Chapter 10 Rights-Based Fisheries Management: The Role of Use Rights in Managing Access and Harvesting 253
Anthony Charles

10.1 What is rights-based fishery management? 253

10.2 Why are use rights relevant to fishery management? 258

10.3 What initial considerations arise with use rights? 260

10.4 What forms of use rights are there? 262

10.5 What implementation decisions arise with use rights? 269

10.6 Synthesis 278

Acknowledgments 280

Sources and recommended reading 280

Chapter 11 Partnerships in Management 283
Evelyn Pinkerton

11.1 Introduction – partnerships solve problems, but are little known by managers 283

11.2 Partnerships of small and large scope 284

11.3 Partnerships of small and large scale 287

11.4 Partnerships with dual or multiple parties 289

11.5 Partnerships with different levels of community empowerment: accountability 291

11.6 Unusual partnerships solving particular equity problems: linking offshore fisheries to coastal communities 292

11.7 Power differentials of diverse actors on regional boards 294

11.8 Conditions for effective partnerships 296

11.9 Community partners may add value to the resource 297

11.10 Conclusion 298

Acknowledgements 298

Sources and recommended reading 298

Part IV Scientific Information and Advice

Chapter 12 Which Indicators for What Management? The Challenge of Connecting Offer and Demand of Indicators 303
Serge Michel Garcia, Hélène Rey-Valette, and Clotilde Bodiguel

12.1 Introduction 303

12.2 Evolution of the demand 304

12.3 Development of a system of indicators 306

12.4 Typology of indicators 314

12.5 Main issues and challenges 322

12.6 Synthesis 328

Sources and recommended reading 328

Web resources 332

Chapter 13 The Use of Scientific Information 336
Kevern L. Cochrane

13.1 Why and when are data and information needed in fisheries management? 336

13.2 Types of knowledge and the role of the scientist 341

13.3 Uncertainty and the precautionary approach 343

13.4 What tools can be used to generate information to advise management? 347

13.5 Scientific advice for management 353

13.6 Using the knowledge in decision-making 362

13.7 Presenting information to decision-makers 363

13.8 Adaptive management 366

13.9 Synthesis and outlook 367

Sources and recommended reading 368

Part V Implementation

Chapter 14 Fishery Monitoring, Control and Surveillance 373
Per Erik Bergh and Sandy Davies

14.1 Introduction 373

14.2 The MCS solution 376

14.3 Core components 384

14.4 Facilitating for MCS 391

14.5 System performance and planning 395

14.6 Synthesis and outlook 399

Sources and recommended reading 401

Web resources 403

Chapter 15 Special Considerations for Small-Scale Fisheries Management in Developing Countries 404
John Kurien and Rolf Willmann

15.1 Why small-scale fisheries need special consideration 404

15.2 Characterizing small-scale fisheries 405

15.3 A vision for small-scale fisheries 406

15.4 Substantive contribution of small-scale fisheries 407

15.5 Management objectives for small-scale fisheries 410

15.6 Management approaches for small-scale fisheries 410

15.7 Institutional arrangements for small-scale fisheries 413

15.8 Making a management plan for a small-scale fishery 414

15.9 Implementation of small-scale fisheries management 416

15.10 Capacity building for small-scale fisheries management 418

15.11 Emerging issues 419

Sources and recommended reading 421

Chapter 16 Fisheries Management Plans 425
David J. Die

16.1 Introduction 425

16.2 Designing a management plan 426

16.3 Implementation of management plans 431

16.4 Reviewing and amending management plans 431

16.5 FMP within the context of the EAF 433

16.6 Examples of management plans 436

16.7 Synthesis and emerging issues 442

Sources and recommended reading 443

Web resources 444

Part VI Conclusions

Chapter 17 From Past Management to Future Governance: A Perspective View 447
Serge Michel Garcia and Kevern L. Cochrane

17.1 Introduction 447

17.2 Historical trends 448

17.3 Emerging practices 452

17.4 The future of fishery governance 467

Sources and recommended reading 471

Glossary 473

Index 507

Colour plate section follows page 302

"A practical guide to the concerns, tools, and techniques essential to modern fisheries management. … Should be in the libraries of any research establishment and university where fisheries and aquatic sciences are studied and taught." (Book News, December 2009)