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A Textbook of Neuroanatomy, 2nd Edition

Maria A. Patestas, Leslie P. Gartner

ISBN: 978-1-118-67746-9 May 2016 Wiley-Blackwell 544 Pages


Newly revised and updated, A Textbook of Neuroanatomy, Second Edition is a concise text designed to help students easily master the anatomy and basic physiology of the nervous system. Accessible and clear, the book highlights interrelationships between systems, structures, and the rest of the body as the chapters move through the various regions of the brain.

Building on the solid foundation of the first edition, A Textbook of Neuroanatomy now includes two new chapters on the brainstem and reflexes, as well as dozens of new micrographs illustrating key structures. Throughout the book the clinical relevance of the material is emphasized through clinical cases, questions, and follow-up discussions in each chapter, motivating students to learn the information. A companion website is also available, featuring study aids and artwork from the book as PowerPoint slides.

A Textbook of Neuroanatomy, Second Edition is an invaluable resource for students of general, clinical and behavioral neuroscience and neuroanatomy.

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Preface viii

About the Companion Website x

Part I General principles of the nervous system 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nervous System 3

Cells of the Central Nervous System 5

Central Nervous System 5

Peripheral Nervous System 8

Questions to Ponder 9

Chapter 2 Development of the Nervous System 10

Early Development 11

Neurulation 13

Early Development of the Spinal Cord and Brain 18

Development of the Spinal Cord 20

Development of the Brain 22

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Nervous System 29

Questions to Ponder 29

Chapter 3 Histophysiology of the Nervous System 30

Neurons 31

Neuroglia 38

Generation and conduction of Nerve Impulses 42

Synonyms and Eponyms of Nervous System Histopathology 46

Questions to Ponder 46

Chapter 4 Neurotransmitter substances 47

Classifi cation of Neurotransmitter Substances 50

Questions to Ponder 57

Chapter 5 Spinal cord 58

Morphology of the Spinal Cord 59

Internal Morphology of the Spinal Cord 65

Vascular Supply of the Spinal Cord 68

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Spinal Cord 72

Questions to Ponder 72

Chapter 6 Gross Anatomy of the Brain 73

Cerebrum 74

Diencephalon 85

Cerebellum 86

Brainstem 89

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Brain 94

Questions to Ponder 94

Chapter 7 Brainstem 95

Internal Organization of the Brainstem 95

Medulla 99

Pons 105

Midbrain 110

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Brainstem 119

Questions to Ponder 119

Chapter 8 Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid 120

Cranial Meninges 121

Spinal Meninges 128

Venous Sinuses of the Cranial Dura Mater 129

Cerebrospinal Fluid 133

Ventricles of the Brain 133

Synonyms and eponyms of the Nervous System 135

Questions to Ponder 135

Chapter 9 Vascular Supply of the Central Nervous System 136

Vascular Supply of the Spinal Cord 137

Arterial Supply of the Brain 138

Venous Drainage of the Brain 151

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Vascular Supply of the Central Nervous System 155

Questions to Ponder 155

Chapter 10 Autonomic Nervous System 156

Sympathetic Nervous System 159

Parasympathetic Nervous System 166

Enteric Nervous System 169

Neurotransmitters and Receptors of the Autonomic Nervous System 170

Pelvic Autonomic Functions 171

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Autonomic Nervous System 174

Questions to Ponder 174

Chapter 11 Spinal Reflexes 175

Components of Reflexes 175

Lower Motoneurons 176

Skeletal Muscle Innervation 177

Skeletal Muscle Receptors 177

Muscle Stretch Reflex 179

Reciprocal Inhibition 179

Autogenic Inhibition (Inverse Myotatic Reflex) 180

Flexor Reflex (Withdrawal Reflex, Nociceptive Reflex) 180

Crossed Extension Reflex 181

Maintenance of Muscle Tone via the Gamma Loop 181

Alpha-Gamma Coactivation 182

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Spinal Reflexes 184

Questions to Ponder 184

Part II Integrative Components of the Nervous System 185

Chapter 12 Ascending sensory Pathways 187

Sensory Receptors 188

Anterolateral System 197

Tactile Sensation and Proprioception 207

Sensory Pathways to the Cerebellum 212

Modulation of Nociception 224

Neuroplasticity 226

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Ascending Sensory Pathways 226

Questions to Ponder 227

Chapter 13 Motor Cortex and Descending Motor Pathways 228

Cortical Areas Controlling Motor Activity 229

Descending Motor Pathways 231

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Motor Cortex and Descending Motor Pathways 248

Questions to Ponder 249

Chapter 14 Basal Nuclei 250

Components of the Basal Nuclei 251

Nuclei Associated with the Basal Nuclei 255

Input, Intrinsic, and Output Nuclei of the Basal Nuclei 257

Connections of the Basal Nuclei 259

Circuits Connecting the Basal Nuclei, Thalamus, and Cerebral Cortex 265

Other Circuits of the Basal Nuclei 267

Neurotransmitters of the Basal Nuclei 268

“Direct” and “Indirect” Loops (Pathways) of the Basal Nuclei 270

Circuits that Modulate Activity of the Basal Nuclei 271

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Basal Nuclei 277

Questions to Ponder 278

Chapter 15 Cerebellum 279

Morphology of the Cerebellum 281

Cerebellar Peduncles 289

Deep Cerebellar Nuclei 291

Afferents (Input) to the Cerebellum 292

Efferents (Output) from the Cerebellum 296

Functional Organization of the Cerebellum: Intrinsic Circuitry 298

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Cerebellum 302

Questions to Ponder 302

Chapter 16 Reticular Formation 303

Morphology of the Reticular Formation 304

Zones of the Reticular Formation 305

Nuclei Associated with the Reticular Formation 307

Input to and Output from the Reticular Formation 307

Functions of the Reticular Formation 308

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Reticular Formation 314

Questions to Ponder 314

Chapter 17 Cranial Nerves 315

Olfactory Nerve (CN I) 320

Optic Nerve (CN II) 320

Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) 321

Trochlear Nerve (CN IV) 323

Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) 325

Abducent Nerve (CN VI) 332

Facial Nerve (CN VII) 336

Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII) 338

Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX) 339

Vagus Nerve (CN X) 342

Spinal Accessory Nerve (CN XI) 345

Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII) 346

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Cranial Nerves 348

Questions to Ponder 349

Chapter 18 Visual System 350

Eye 350

Central Visual Pathways 355

Visual Reflexes 365

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Visual System 375

Questions to Ponder 375

Chapter 19 Auditory System 376

Ear 376

Auditory Transmission 381

Central Auditory Pathways 383

Synonyms and eponyms of the Auditory System 391

Questions to Ponder 391

Chapter 20 Vestibular System 392

Vestibular Apparatus 393

Vestibular Nerve (CN VIII) 399

Central Pathways of the Vestibular System 400

Control of Ocular Movements 403

Vestibular Nystagmus 406

Caloric Nystagmus 408

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Vestibular System 409

Questions to Ponder 410

Chapter 21 Olfactory System 411

Olfactory Receptor Cells 412

Olfactory Transduction 412

Olfactory Nerve (CN I) 414

Central Connections of the Olfactory System 415

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Olfactory System 418

Questions to Ponder 419

Chapter 22 Limbic System 420

Limbic Lobe 421

Brainstem Centers Associated with Limbic System Function 432

Pathways of the Limbic System 432

Limbic Association Cortex 435

Limbic System Input to the Endocrine, Autonomic, and Somatic Motor Systems 435

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Limbic System 437

Questions to Ponder 438

Chapter 23 Hypothalamus 439

Borders 440

Hypothalamic Zones and Component Nuclei 441

Hypothalamic Regions (areas) and Component Nuclei 446

Connections of the Hypothalamus 448

Pathways of the Hypothalamus 449

Functions of the Hypothalamus 452

Hypothalamohypophyseal Connections 455

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Hypothalamus 462

Questions to Ponder 463

Chapter 24 Thalamus 465

Borders 465

Anatomy 467

Internal and External Medullary Laminae 468

Thalamic Nuclei 469

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Thalamus 477

Questions to Ponder 478

Chapter 25 Cerebral Cortex 479

Cells of the Cerebral Cortex 481

Types of Cortex 483

Cell layers of the Neocortex 484

Vertical Columnar Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 485

Afferents (Input) to the Cerebral Cortex 485

Efferents (Output) from the Cerebral Cortex 486

Internal Capsule and Corona Radiata 489

Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 489

Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 490

Cerebral Dominance 498

Synonyms and Eponyms of the Cerebral Cortex 504

Questions to Ponder 506

Questions to Ponder: Answers to Odd Questions 507

Index 517