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Abnormal Psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders, 14th Edition

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Abnormal Psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders, 14th Edition

Ann M. Kring, Sheri L. Johnson

ISBN: 978-1-119-39523-2 December 2017

Description

Abnormal Psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders consists of a balance and blending of research and clinical application, the use of paradigms as an organizing principle, and involving the learner in the kinds of real-world problem solving engaged in by clinicians and scientists. Students learn that psychopathology is best understood by considering multiple perspectives and that these varying perspectives provide the clearest accounting of the causes of these disorders as well as the best possible treatments.

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1 Introduction and Historical Overview 1

Psychological Disorders and Stigmas 2

Defining Psychological Disorder 6

Personal Distress 6

Disability and Dysfunction 6

Violation of Social Norms 7

History of Psychopathology 8

Supernatural Explanations 8

Early Biological Explanations 9

The Dark Ages: Back to the Supernatural 9

Development of Asylums 10

The Evolution of Contemporary Thought 13

Biological Approaches 14

Psychological Approaches 15

Have We Learned From History? 23

The Mental Health Professions 25

Summary 26

2 Current Paradigms in Psychopathology 28

The Genetic Paradigm 28

Behavior Genetics 30

Molecular Genetics 31

Gene–Environment Interactions 33

Evaluating the Genetic Paradigm 33

The Neuroscience Paradigm 35

Neurons and Neurotransmitters 35

Structure and Function of the Human Brain 36

The Neuroendocrine System 39

The Immune System 39

Neuroscience Approaches to Treatment 39

Evaluating the Neuroscience Paradigm 40

The Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm 41

Influences from Behavior Therapy 41

Cognitive Science 42

The Role of the Unconscious 43

Cognitive Behavior Therapy 43

Evaluating the Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm 45

Factors That Cut Across Paradigms 45

Emotion and Psychopathology 46

Sociocultural Factors and Psychopathology 47

Interpersonal Factors and Psychopathology 49

Summary 54

3 Diagnosis and Assessment 56

Cornerstones of Diagnosis and Assessment: Reliability and Validity 57

Reliability 57

Validity 58

Diagnosis 60

The Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association: DSM-5 60

Specific Criticisms of the DSM 66

General Criticisms of Diagnosing Psychological Disorders 69

Psychological Assessment 70

Clinical Interviews 71

Assessment of Stress 73

Personality Tests 75

Intelligence Tests 78

Behavioral and Cognitive Assessment 79

Direct Observation of Behavior 79

Self-Monitoring 80

Cognitive-Style Questionnaires 80

Neurobiological Assessment 81

Brain Imaging: “Seeing” the Brain 81

Neuropsychological Assessment 84

Psychophysiological Assessment 85

A Cautionary Note About Neurobiological Assessment 85

Cultural and Ethnic Diversity and Assessment 86

Cultural Bias in Assessment 87

Strategies for Avoiding Cultural Bias in Assessment 88

Summary 89

4 Research Methods in Psychopathology 91

Science, Theory, and Hypotheses 92

Research Designs in Psychopathology 92

The Case Study 92

The Correlational Method 94

The Experiment 101

One Example of Experimental Research: Treatment Outcome Research 105

Defining the Treatment Condition 106

Defining Control Groups 108

Defining a Sample 109

Assessing and Implementing Treatments in the Real World 109

Analogues in Psychopathology Research 112

Integrating the Findings of Multiple Studies 114

Replication 114

Meta-Analysis 116

Summary 118

5 Mood Disorders 120

Clinical Descriptions and Epidemiology of Depressive Disorders 121

Major Depressive Disorder 122

Persistent Depressive Disorder 122

Epidemiology and Consequences of Depressive Disorders 123

Clinical Descriptions and Epidemiology of Bipolar Disorders 127

Bipolar I Disorder 128

Bipolar II Disorder 128

Cyclothymic Disorder 128

Epidemiology and Consequences of Bipolar Disorders 129

Etiology of Mood Disorders 131

Genetic Factors 131

Neurotransmitters 133

Neural Regions Involved in Emotion and Reward Processing 134

Cortisol Dysregulation 136

Social Factors in Depression: Childhood Adversity, Life Events, and Interpersonal Difficulties 137

Psychological Factors in Depression 139

Social and Psychological Factors in Bipolar Disorder 142

Treatment of Mood Disorders 144

Psychological Treatment of Depression 144

Psychological Treatment of Bipolar Disorder 147

Biological Treatment of Mood Disorders 148

Suicide 152

Epidemiology of Suicide and Suicide Attempts 153

Risk Factors for Suicide 155

Preventing Suicide 157

Summary 159

6 Anxiety Disorders 161

Emotions of Anxiety and Fear 162

Clinical Descriptions of the Anxiety Disorders 163

Specific Phobias 164

Social Anxiety Disorder 165

Panic Disorder 167

Agoraphobia 167

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 168

Comorbidity in Anxiety Disorders 169

Gender and Cultural Factors in the Anxiety Disorders 170

Gender 170

Culture 170

Common Risk Factors Across the Anxiety Disorders 172

Fear Conditioning 172

Genetic Factors 174

Neurobiological Factors: The Fear Circuit and the Activity of Neurotransmitters 175

Personality: Behavioral Inhibition and Neuroticism 176

Cognitive Factors 176

Etiology of Specific Anxiety Disorders 179

Etiology of Specific Phobias 179

Etiology of Social Anxiety Disorder 180

Etiology of Panic Disorder 181

Etiology of Agoraphobia 183

Etiology of Generalized Anxiety Disorder 184

Treatments of the Anxiety Disorders 185

Commonalities Across Psychological Treatments 185

Psychological Treatments of Specific Anxiety Disorders 186

Medications That Reduce Anxiety 189

Summary 190

7 Obsessive-Compulsive-Related and Trauma-Related Disorders 192

Clinical Descriptions and Epidemiology of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 193

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 193

Body Dysmorphic Disorder 196

Hoarding Disorder 197

Prevalence and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 198

Etiology of the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 199

Etiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 200

Etiology of Body Dysmorphic Disorder 201

Etiology of Hoarding Disorder 201

Treatment of the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 203

Medications 203

Psychological Treatment 203

Deep Brain Stimulation: A Treatment in Development for OCD 206

Clinical Description and Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder 207

Etiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 210

Nature of the Trauma: Severity and the Type of Trauma Matter 211

Neurobiology: The Hippocampus 211

Coping 212

Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder 213

Medication Treatment of PTSD 213

Psychological Treatment of PTSD 214

Psychological Treatment of Acute Stress Disorder 215

Summary 216

8 Dissociative Disorders and Somatic Symptom-Related Disorders 218

Clinical Descriptions and Epidemiology of the Dissociative Disorders 219

Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder 220

Dissociative Amnesia 221

Dissociative Identity Disorder 224

The Epidemiology of Dissociative Disorders: Increases Over Time 225

Etiology of DID 226

The Posttraumatic Model 227

The Sociocognitive Model 227

Treatment of DID 229

Clinical Description of Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders 230

Clinical Description of Somatic Symptom Disorder 231

Clinical Description of Illness Anxiety Disorder 232

Clinical Description of Conversion Disorder 232

Etiology of Somatic Symptom-Related Disorders 236

Neurobiological Factors That Increase Awareness of and Distress Over Somatic Symptoms 236

Cognitive Behavioral Factors That Increase Awareness of and Distress Over Somatic Symptoms 238

Etiology of Conversion Disorder 239

Treatment of Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders 241

Somatic Symptom Disorder and Illness Anxiety Disorder 241

Conversion Disorder 242

Summary 243

9 Schizophrenia 245

Clinical Descriptions of Schizophrenia 246

Positive Symptoms 246

Negative Symptoms 249

Disorganized Symptoms 250

Other Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders 253

Etiology of Schizophrenia 254

Genetic Factors 254

The Role of Neurotransmitters 259

Connectivity in the Brain 263

Environmental Factors Influencing the Developing Brain 263

Psychological Factors 264

Developmental Factors 267

Treatment of Schizophrenia 269

Medications 270

Psychological Treatments 273

Summary 278

10 Substance Use Disorders 280

Overview: Substance Use and the DSM-5 280

Clinical Descriptions: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Disorders 282

Alcohol Use Disorder 284

Tobacco Use Disorder 287

Marijuana 290

Clinical Descriptions: Opioid, Stimulant, and Other Drug Use Disorders 294

Opioids 295

Stimulants 298

Hallucinogens, Ecstasy, and PCP 301

Etiology of Substance Use Disorders 303

Genetic Factors 304

Neurobiological Factors 305

Psychological Factors 307

Sociocultural Factors 310

Treatment of Substance Use Disorders 313

Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder 313

Treatments for Smoking 316

Treatment of Drug Use Disorders 318

Prevention of Substance Use Disorders 323

Summary 324

11 Eating Disorders 326

Clinical Descriptions of Eating Disorders 327

Anorexia Nervosa 327

Bulimia Nervosa 331

Physical Consequences of Bulimia Nervosa 332

Binge Eating Disorder 333

Etiology of Eating Disorders 338

Genetic Factors 338

Neurobiological Factors 338

Cognitive Behavioral Factors 341

Sociocultural Factors 343

Other Factors Contributing to the Etiology of Eating Disorders 347

Treatment of Eating Disorders 349

Medications 349

Psychological Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa 350

Psychological Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa 350

Psychological Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder 352

Preventive Interventions for Eating Disorders 353

Summary 354

12 Sexual Disorders 356

Sexual Norms and Behavior 357

Gender and Sexuality 359

The Sexual Response Cycle 360

Clinical Descriptions of Sexual Dysfunctions 362

Disorders Involving Sexual Interest, Desire, and Arousal 363

Orgasmic Disorders 365

Sexual Pain Disorder 366

Etiology of Sexual Dysfunctions 367

Biological Factors 368

Psychosocial Factors 368

Treatments of Sexual Dysfunctions 370

Psychoeducation 371

Couples Therapy 371

Cognitive Interventions 372

Sensate Focus 372

Treatments for Specific Sexual Dysfunctions 372

Clinical Descriptions of the Paraphilic Disorders 373

Fetishistic Disorder 375

Pedophilic Disorder and Incest 376

Voyeuristic Disorder 378

Exhibitionistic Disorder 378

Frotteuristic Disorder 378

Sexual Sadism and Masochism Disorders 378

Etiology of the Paraphilic Disorders 380

Neurobiological Factors 380

Childhood Sexual Abuse 380

Psychological Factors 380

Treatments and Community Prevention for the Paraphilic Disorders 381

Strategies to Enhance Motivation 382

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment 382

Biological Treatments 382

Balancing Efforts to Protect the Public Against Civil Liberties for Those with Paraphilias 383

Summary 384

13 Disorders of Childhood 386

Classification and Diagnosis of Childhood Disorders 387

Externalizing Disorders: ADHD and Conduct Disorder 388

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 388

Conduct Disorder 395

Internalizing Disorders: Depression and Anxiety Disorders 403

Depression 403

Anxiety 409

Specific Learning Disorder and Intellectual Disability 413

Dyslexia: A Type of Specific Learning Disorder 413

Intellectual Disability 416

Autism Spectrum Disorder 421

Clinical Descriptions, Prevalence, and Prognosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder 421

Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder 425

Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder 427

Summary 428

14 Late Life and Neurocognitive Disorders 430

Aging: Myths, Problems, and Methods 431

Myths About Late Life 432

The Problems Experienced in Late Life 433

Research Methods in the Study of Aging 433

Psychological Disorders in Late Life 435

Prevalence Estimates of Psychological Disorders in Late Life 435

Methodological Issues in Estimating the Prevalence of Psychopathology 437

Treatment 437

Dementia 438

Alzheimer’s Disease 440

Frontotemporal Dementia 444

Vascular Dementia 445

Dementia with Lewy Bodies 445

Treatments for Dementia 446

Delirium 449

Etiology of Delirium 451

Treatment of Delirium 451

Summary 452

15 Personality Disorders 454

The DSM-5 Approach to Classification 455

Problems with the DSM-5 Approach to Personality Disorders 457

Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders 459

Common Risk Factors Across the Personality Disorders 461

Clinical Description and Etiology of the Odd/Eccentric Cluster 463

Paranoid Personality Disorder 463

Schizoid Personality Disorder 464

Schizotypal Personality Disorder 464

Clinical Description and Etiology of the Dramatic/Erratic Cluster 466

Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy 466

Borderline Personality Disorder 470

Histrionic Personality Disorder 473

Narcissistic Personality Disorder 473

Clinical Description and Etiology of the Anxious/Fearful Cluster 476

Avoidant Personality Disorder 476

Dependent Personality Disorder 477

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder 478

Treatment of Personality Disorders 479

Treatment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Avoidant Personality Disorder 481

Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder 481

Summary 483

16 Legal and Ethical Issues 485

Criminal Commitment 486

The Insanity Defense 487

Current Insanity Pleas 489

Competency to Stand Trial 492

Insanity, Intellectual Disability, and Capital Punishment 496

Civil Commitment 498

Preventive Detention and Problems in the Prediction of Dangerousness 499

Protection of the Rights of People with Psychological Disorders 500

Ethical Dilemmas in Therapy and Research 505

Ethical Restraints on Research 506

Informed Consent 507

Confidentiality and Privileged Communication 508

Summary 509

Appendix: DSM-5 Diagnoses A-1

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Name Index N-1

Subject Index S-1

  • Sharpened Focus: Discarded reviews of now-outdated theories that lack solid empirical support, the course instead focuses on the most exciting and accepted current theories, research, and treatments.
  • New and Updated References, Figures, and Clinical Cases: The course contains hundreds (n = 831) of updated references. Throughout the course, the presentation has been streamlined to increase clarity and to highlight the key issues in the field. The course includes new figures and tables to carefully illustrate various concepts. Also included are several new Clinical Cases to illustrate the ways in which psychological disorders are experienced by people.
  • New Pedagogy: The course has additional pedagogy based on feedback from students and professors. For example, new Focus on Discovery boxes have been added to showcase cutting-edge research on particular topics. In addition, new and modified Check Your Knowledge questions have been added in nearly all course sections so that students can do a quick check to verify they are learning and integrating the material. Drawing on evidence for the importance of generative thinking for learning, many of the questions are open-ended.
  • New Photos and Well-Known Faces Illustrate Real World Examples: There are many new photos used in the course to provide students with additional real-world examples and applications of psychopathology, including examples of some of the highly successful and well-known people who have come forward in the past several years to discuss their own psychological disorders. 
  • Context, Paradigms, and the DSM-5: Course sections 1-4 place the field in historical context, present the concept of paradigms in science, describe the major paradigms in psychopathology, describe the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), critically discuss its validity and reliability, provide an overview of major approaches and techniques in clinical assessment, and then describe the major research methods of the field. These sections are the foundation on which the later course sections can be interpreted and understood.
  • Disorders and Their Treatment: Specific psychological disorders and their treatment are discussed in course sections 5-15. Throughout the course, three major perspectives or paradigms are discussed: genetic, neuroscience, and cognitive behavioral. The course also emphasizes the importance of factors that are important to all paradigms: emotion, gender, culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A related issue is the use of more than one paradigm in studying psychological disorders. Rather than force an entire field into, for example, a cognitive behavioural paradigm, this course argues from the available information that different problems in psychopathology are amenable to analyses within different frameworks.
  • Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: The course includes considerable material on culture, race, and ethnicity in the study of causes and treatment of psychological disorders. Section 2 includes a separate module that emphasizes the importance of culture, race, and ethnicity in all paradigms. The course points to the important role of culture and ethnicity in the other sections as well. For example, in the Diagnosis and Assessment section (3), cultural bias in assessment and ways to guard against this selectivity in perception is discussed. The course also provides information on culture in anxiety and depression in sections 5-7.