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Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers

Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers

Woon Siong Gan

ISBN: 978-0-470-66160-4

Jul 2012

426 pages

In Stock

$155.00

Description

The technology of acoustical imaging has advanced rapidly over the last sixty years, and now represents a sophisticated technique applied to a wide range of fields including non-destructive testing, medical imaging, underwater imaging and SONAR, and geophysical exploration. Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers introduces the basic physics of acoustics and acoustical imaging, before progressing to more advanced topics such as 3D and 4D imaging, elasticity theory, gauge invariance property of acoustic equation of motion and acoustic metamaterials. The author draws together the different technologies in sonar, seismic and ultrasound imaging, highlighting the similarities between topic areas and their common underlying theory.

Key features:

  • Comprehensively covers all of the important applications of acoustical imaging.
  • Introduces the gauge invariance property of acoustic equation of motion, with applications in the elastic constants of isotropic solids, time reversal acoustics, negative refraction, double negative acoustical metamaterial and acoustical cloaking.
  • Contains up to date treatments on latest theories of sound propagation in random media, including statistical treatment and chaos theory.
  • Includes a chapter devoted to new acoustics based on metamaterials, a field founded by the author, including a new theory of elasticity and new theory of sound propagation in solids and fluids and tremendous potential in several novel applications.

Covers the hot topics on acoustical imaging including time reversal acoustics, negative refraction and acoustical cloaking.

Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers is a comprehensive reference on acoustical imaging and forms a valuable resource for engineers, researchers, senior undergraduate and graduate students.

About the Author xv

Foreword xvii

1 Introduction 1

2 Physics of Acoustics and Acoustical Imaging 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Sound Propagation in Solids 5

2.3 Use of Gauge Potential Theory to Solve Acoustic Wave Equations 7

2.4 Propagation of Finite Wave Amplitude Sound Wave in Solids 8

2.5 Nonlinear Effects Due to Energy Absorption 11

2.6 Gauge Theory Formulation of Sound Propagation in Solids 12

3 Signal Processing 15

3.1 Mathematical Tools in Signal Processing and Image Processing 15

3.2 Image Enhancement 23

3.3 Image Sampling and Quantization 24

3.4 Stochastic Modelling of Images 28

3.5 Beamforming 30

3.6 Finite-Element Method 32

3.7 Boundary Element Method 34

4 Common Methodologies of Acoustical Imaging 37

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Tomography 37

4.3 Holography 50

4.4 Pulse–Echo and Transmission Modes 53

4.5 Acoustic Microscopy 59

5 Time-Reversal Acoustics and Superresolution 63

5.1 Introduction 63

5.2 Theory of Time-Reversal Acoustics 63

5.3 Application of TR to Medical Ultrasound Imaging 69

5.4 Application of Time-Reversal Acoustics to Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing 70

5.5 Application of TRA to Landmine or Buried Object Detection 80

5.6 Application of Time-Reversal Acoustics to Underwater Acoustics 86

6 Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging 89

6.1 Application of Chaos Theory to Acoustical Imaging 89

6.2 Nonclassical Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging 107

6.3 Modulation Method of Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging 116

6.4 Harmonic Imaging 121

7 High-Frequencies Acoustical Imaging 125

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Transducers 125

7.3 Electronic Circuitry 126

7.4 Software 127

7.5 Applications of High-Frequencies In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging System 127

7.6 System of 150 MHz Ultrasound Imaging of the Skin and the Eye 128

7.7 Signal Processing for the 150 MHz System 129

7.8 Electronic Circuits of Acoustical Microscope 135

8 Statistical Treatment of Acoustical Imaging 141

8.1 Introduction 141

8.2 Scattering by Inhomogeneities 142

8.3 Study of the Statistical Properties of the Wavefield 143

8.4 Continuum Medium Approach of Statistical Treatment 163

9 Nondestructive Testing 169

9.1 Defects Characterization 169

9.2 Automated Ultrasonic Testing 171

9.3 Guided Waves Used in Acoustical Imaging for NDT 176

9.4 Ultrasonic Technologies for Stress Measurement and Material Studies 178

9.5 Dry Contact or Noncontact Transducers 185

9.6 Phased Array Transducers 186

10 Medical Ultrasound Imaging 195

10.1 Introduction 195

10.2 Physical Principles of Sound Propagation 196

10.3 Imaging Modes 198

10.4 B-scan Instrumentation 207

10.5 C-scan Instrumentation 217

10.6 Tissue Harmonic Imaging 220

10.7 Elasticity Imaging 228

10.8 Colour Doppler Imaging 244

10.9 Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound 250

10.10 3D Ultrasound Medical Imaging 254

10.11 Development Trends 258

11 Underwater Acoustical Imaging 263

11.1 Introduction 263

11.2 Principles of Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems 264

11.3 Principles of Some Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems 270

11.4 Characteristics of Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems 273

11.5 Imaging Modalities 275

11.6 A Few Representative Underwater Acoustical Imaging System 278

11.7 Application of Robotics to Underwater Acoustical Imaging 287

12 Geophysical Exploration 289

12.1 Introduction 289

12.2 Applications of Acoustical Holography to Seismic Imaging 290

12.3 Examples of Field Experiments 291

12.4 Laboratory Modelling 297

12.5 Techniques of Image Processing and Enhancement 297

12.6 Computer Reconstruction 298

12.7 Other Applications of Seismic Holography 303

12.8 Signal Processing in Seismic Holography 303

12.9 Application of Diffraction Tomography to Seismic Imaging 310

12.10 Conclusions 322

13 Quantum Acoustical Imaging 325

13.1 Introduction 325

13.2 Optical Piezoelectric Transducers for Generation of Nanoacoustic Waves 325

13.3 Optical Detection of Nanoacoustic Waves 329

13.4 Nanoimaging/Quantum Acoustical Imaging 329

13.5 Generation and Amplification of Terahertz Acoustic Waves 334

13.6 Theory of Electron Inversion and Phonon Amplification Produced in the Active SL by Optical Pumping 336

13.7 Source for Quantum Acoustical Imaging 339

13.8 Phonons Entanglement for Quantum Acoustical Imaging 339

13.9 Applications of Quantum Acoustical Imaging 340

14 Negative Refraction, Acoustical Metamaterials and Acoustical Cloaking 343

14.1 Introduction 343

14.2 Limitation of Veselago’s Theory 344

14.3 Multiple Scattering Approach to Perfect Acoustic Lens 348

14.4 Acoustical Cloaking 354

14.5 Acoustic Metamaterial with Simultaneous Negative Mass Density and Negative Bulk Modulus 359

14.6 Acoustical Cloaking Based on Nonlinear Coordinate Transformations 363

14.7 Acoustical Cloaking of Underwater Objects 366

14.8 Extension of Double Negativity to Nonlinear Acoustics 367

15 New Acoustics Based on Metamaterials 369

15.1 Introduction 369

15.2 New Acoustics and Acoustical Imaging 370

15.3 Background of Phononic Crystals 371

15.4 Theory of Phononic Crystals – The Multiple Scattering Theory (MST) 372

15.5 Negative Refraction Derived from Gauge Invariance (Coordinates Transformation) – An Alternative Theory of Negative Refraction 376

15.6 Reflection and Transmission of Sound Wave at Interface of Two Media with Different Parities 380

15.7 Theory of Diffraction by Negative Inclusion 381

15.8 Extension to Theory of Diffraction by Inclusion of General Form of Mass Density and Bulk Modulus Manipulated by Predetermined Direction of Sound Propagation 394

15.9 A New Approach to Diffraction Theory – A Rigorous Theory Based on the Material Parameters 394

15.10 Negative Refraction Derived from Reflection Invariance (Right-Left Symmetry) – A New Approach to Negative Refraction 395

15.11 A Unified Theory for Isotropy Invariance, Time Reversal Invariance and Reflection Invariance 397

15.12 Application of New Acoustics to Acoustic Waveguide 397

15.13 New Elasticity 398

15.14 Nonlinear Acoustics Based on Metamaterial 399

15.15 Ultrasonic Attenuation in Acoustic Metamaterial 401

15.16 Applications of Phononic Crystal Devices 403

15.17 Comparison of the Significance of Role Played by Gauge Theory and MST in Metamaterial – A Sum-up of the Theories of Metamaterial 404

15.18 Impact of New Acoustics Compared with Nonlinear Acoustics 404

15.19 Conclusions 404

References 405

16 Future Directions and Future Technologies 407

Index 409

“Woon Siong Gan's Acoustical Imaging is a comprehensive imaging.”  (Noise Control Engineering Journal, 1 July 2015)