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Acquisition and Performance of Sports Skills, 2nd Edition

Hardcover

$161.25

Acquisition and Performance of Sports Skills, 2nd Edition

Terry McMorris

ISBN: 978-1-118-44462-7 May 2014 318 Pages

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An extensive update of a successful textbook on skill acquisition for sport students. Praised for its clarity of writing style and presentation the new edition will be an essential buy for those needing a practical, sport-focused introduction to the theory and application of human motor skills.

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Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xix

About the Companion Website xxi

1 Skill, Ability and Performance 1

Learning objectives 1

Skill 2

Classification of skills 3

Ability 6

Genes 8

The ability–skill interaction 10

Summary 12

Theories of performance 12

Information processing theory 13

Ecological psychology theories 17

Conclusion 20

Summary 20

Skill 20

Ability 20

Ability-skill interaction 21

Information processing theory 21

Ecological psychology theories 22

Test your knowledge 22

Part one 22

Part two 24

Additional reading 24

2 Sensation and Perception of External Information 25

Learning objectives 25

Information processing theory, sensation and perception 26

Definition of Perception 27

Signal detection theory 28

Pattern recognition 30

Selective attention 33

Visual search 36

Quiet eye 37

Individual differences 37

Summary 39

Ecological psychology and perception 39

Criticisms of the ecological approach 43

Summary 43

Developmental factors 43

Vision 43

Audition 44

Perceptual development and the environment 44

Conclusion 44

Summary 45

Information processing theory and perception 45

Ecological psychology and perception 47

Developmental factors 47

Test your knowledge 48

Part one 48

Part two 50

Part three 51

Additional reading 51

3 Decision Making and Working Memory 53

Learning objectives 53

Decision making 54

Working memory and decision making 54

Dynamical systems theory and goal achievement 58

Child development 58

Piagetian theory 59

Mental space theory 60

Domain-specificity theories 60

Information processing theory and cognitive development 61

Ecological psychology theories of cognitive development 61

Summary 62

Ageing 65

Research findings and problems with research design 65

Conclusion 67

Summary 68

Information processing theory and decision making 68

Working memory and decision making 68

Functional brain regions and working memory 68

Dynamical systems theory and goal achievement 69

Developmental issues 69

Research 69

Test your knowledge 70

Part one 70

Part two 71

Part three 72

Additional reading 72

4 Reaction Time 73

Learning objectives 73

Reaction time, movement time and response time: definitions 74

Inter- and intraindividual differences 76

Hick–Hyman Law 77

Probability and choice reaction time 77

Psychological refractory period 78

Stimulus and response factors 79

Central executive tasks and reaction time 84

Arousal and reaction time 84

Development and reaction time 85

Ageing 85

Reaction time research findings as evidence for and against information processing theory 85

Summary 86

Test your knowledge 87

Part one 87

Part two 88

Part three 89

Additional reading 89

5 Anticipation 91

Learning objectives 91

Interceptive actions 92

Information processing theory and interceptive actions 92

Watching the object to be intercepted 93

Action systems theory and interceptive actions 94

Perceptual anticipation 95

Information processing theory and perceptual anticipation 95

Ecological psychology and perceptual anticipation 96

Development and anticipation 102

Summary 103

Information processing theory and interceptive actions 103

Action systems theory and interceptive actions 103

Watching the ball and interceptive actions 103

Information processing theory and perceptual anticipation 103

Ecological psychology and perceptual anticipation 103

Research paradigms in perceptual anticipation 104

Research results 104

Developmental factors 104

Test your knowledge 104

Part one 104

Part two 106

Part three 107

Additional reading 107

6 Motor Control 109

Learning objectives 109

Central nervous system–peripheral nervous system interaction 110

Types of feedback 113

Summary 119

Information processing theory and efferent organization 119

Motor programmes 120

Summary 123

Ecological psychology and motor control 123

Visual guidance of movement 125

Summary 126

Development and motor control 127

Neurological and physiological growth 127

Adolescence 128

Ageing 129

Theories of motor development 129

Ecological psychology and motor development 130

Motor performance 131

Ageing 132

Practical implications 132

Mini-games 133

Conditioned games 133

Gender issues 134

Physical stress during performance 134

Summary 135

Brain and motor control 135

Proprioception 135

Motor programmes 135

Ecological psychology and motor control 135

Developmental issues 136

Theories of motor development 136

Motor performance 136

Test your knowledge 137

Part one 137

Part two 138

Additional reading 139

7 Memory 141

Learning objectives 141

Information processing theory and short-term memory 142

Sensory information store 142

Short-term memory 142

Forgetting in short-term memory 143

Short-term motor memory 144

Information processing theory and long-term memory 147

Long-term motor memory 147

Declarative long-term memory 148

Non-declarative long-term memory 148

Regional brain functions and memory 149

Development and short-term and long-term memory 150

Ecological psychology and attunement to affordances 151

Summary 152

Sensory information store 152

Short-term memory 152

Short-term motor memory 152

Long-term memory 153

Long-term motor memory 153

Declarative memory 153

Non-declarative memory 153

Regional brain functions 153

Development 153

Ecological psychology and attunement to affordances 154

Test your knowledge 154

Part one 154

Part two 155

Additional reading 156

8 Learning I: Types, theories, styles and measurement 157

Learning objectives 157

Types of learning 158

Explicit learning 158

Implicit learning 159

Mental rehearsal 163

Cognitive theories of learning 163

Fitts and Posner’s three stage theory 164

Gentile’s model of learning 164

Adams’ closed loop theory of learning 165

Schmidt’s schema theory 166

Anderson’s adaptive control of thought (ACT*) theory 167

Observational learning theory 168

Dynamical systems theory and learning 168

Learning and coaching/teaching styles 170

Learning styles 171

Coaching/teaching styles 172

Optimal periods of learning 176

Measuring learning 176

Types of tests used to infer learning 179

Summary 182

Cognitive theories of learning 182

Dynamical systems theory and learning 183

Learning styles 183

Coaching/teaching styles 183

Practical implications 184

Measurement 184

Test your knowledge 184

Part one 184

Part two 185

Part three 186

Additional reading 187

9 Learning II: Instruction, Practice, Transfer of Training and Feedback 189

Learning objectives 189

Instruction 190

Analogy as a form of instruction 191

Focus of attention 191

Demonstration 192

Mirror neurons 193

Practice 193

Types of practice 193

Variability of practice 198

Contextual interference 199

Dynamical systems theory and practice 200

Transfer of training 201

Transfer theories 202

Bilateral transfer 204

Feedback 205

Observation 205

Timing and precision of feedback 208

Summary 213

Feedback formats 213

Practical implications 214

Deciding on session content 215

Deciding on the type of instruction 216

Practice, observation and feedback 217

Observation 218

Feedback 219

Summary 221

Instruction and demonstration 221

Practice 221

Deliberate practice 221

Variability of practice 221

Contextual interference 221

Dynamical systems theory and practice 222

Transfer of training 222

Feedback 223

Practical implications 223

Test your knowledge 224

Part one 224

Part two 226

Part three 227

Part four 228

Additional reading 228

10 Motivation, Arousal, and Learning and Performance 229

Learning objectives 229

Motivation 229

Motivational theories 230

Self-determination theory 230

Achievement motivation theory 231

Achievement goal theory 232

Summary 233

Practical implications 233

Developmental issues 234

Arousal and performance 235

Arousal-performance theories 235

Regional brain functions and arousal 240

Practical implications 241

High levels of arousal 243

Summary 247

Motivation 247

Arousal 248

Theories of arousal-performance interaction 248

Regional brain functions and arousal 249

Practical implications 249

Test your knowledge 250

Part one 250

Part two 251

Part three 252

Additional reading 252

11 Conclusion 253

State of the art 253

Skill 253

Abilities 254

Perception 254

Decision making 255

Reaction time 255

Anticipation 255

Motor control 255

Memory 255

Learning 256

Practice 256

Arousal and performance 256

Information processing theory versus ecological psychology theories 256

Neuroscientific input 258

Appendix 1: Writing an Academic Paper 259

Version one 259

Version two 260

Appendix 2: Test Your Knowledge Answers 263

Chapter 1 263

Part one 263

Part two 263

Chapter 2 263

Part one 263

Part two 264

Part three 264

Chapter 3 265

Part one 265

Part two 265

Part three 266

Chapter 4 266

Part one 266

Part two 267

Part three 267

Chapter 5 268

Part one 268

Part two 268

Part three 269

Chapter 6 270

Part one 270

Part two 271

Chapter 7 272

Part one 272

Part two 272

Chapter 8 272

Part one 272

Part two 272

Part three 273

Chapter 9 273

Part one 273

Part two 273

Part three 274

Part four 274

Chapter 10 275

Part one 275

Part two 276

Part three 276

Appendix 3: Calculating variable error 277

References 279

Index 291