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Additives for High Performance Applications: Chemistry and Applications

Additives for High Performance Applications: Chemistry and Applications

Johannes Karl Fink

ISBN: 978-1-119-36389-7

Oct 2016

272 pages

$156.99

Description

This book focuses on the chemistry of additives for high performance applications and a large number of chemical formulas are displayed in the text. The additives applications include:

  • Analysis and separation techniques, such as high performance liquid chromatography, for example ionic liquids.
  • Additives for electrical applications, such as capacitors, electrokinetic micropumps, lithium-ion batteries, and other battery types.
  • Additives for solar cells for control of the active layer nanomorphology are documented as are additives for electrolyte membranes, fuel cells, such as membrane exchange humidifiers and coolant additives.
  • Medical applications include high performance additives for the manufacture of scaffolds, controlled drug release, and nanofibers.
  • Additives for lubricants including the deposit control, anti-wear additives, fluid loss control additives in drilling applications.
  • Additives for concrete uses such as set retarders, curing accelerators, defoamers, permeability control additives, and corrosion protection additives.

Preface xi

1 Analysis and Separation Techniques 1

1.1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography 1

1.1.1 Ionic Liquids as Mobile Phase Additives 1

1.1.2 Food Additives 12

1.1.3 Chaotropicity 14

1.1.4 Cigarette Additives 16

1.1.5 Chiral Separation 20

1.1.6 Peptides and Proteins 31

1.1.7 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-Naphthoic Acid 32

1.1.8 Diesel Lubricating Additives 32

1.1.9 Acidic Drugs 34

1.2 Chelation Ion Chromatography 39

1.3 Membranes 40

1.3.1 Carbon Dioxide Separation 40

1.3.2 Hollow Fiber Membranes 41

References 42

2 Electrical Applications 47

2.1 Capacitors 47

2.1.1 Triethanolamine 47

2.1.2 Supercapacitors 47

2.2 Electrokinetic Micropumps 50

2.3 Lead-Acid Batteries 50

2.3.1 Activated Carbon Additives 51

2.3.2 High Performance Positive Electrode 51

2.4 Lithium-Ion Batteries 53

2.4.1 Ionic Diffusion 56

2.4.2 Functional Electrolytes 56

2.4.3 Synergetic Effect of Conductive Additives 58

2.4.4 In-Situ Coating of Cathode by Electrolyte Additive 58

2.4.5 Bipolar Architectures 59

2.4.6 Janus Separator 63

2.4.7 Synthesis of Vanadium Cathodes 64

2.4.8 Graphite 64

2.4.9 Silicon 67

2.4.10 Carbon Nanotubes 69

2.4.11 Carbonate Additives 70

2.4.12 Borate Additives 73

2.4.13 Tris(pentafluorophenyl) Borane 78

2.4.14 Phosphoric Additives 79

2.4.15 Sulfur Additives 83

2.4.16 Isothiocyanates 90

2.4.17 Other Additive Types 92

2.5 Nickel Batteries 101

2.5.1 High-Rate Discharge Performance 106

2.5.2 Multiphase Nano-Nickel Hydroxide 108

2.5.3 Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries 108

2.6 Sodium-Ion Batteries 112

2.6.1 Antimony-Based Intermetallic Alloy Anodes 112

2.7 Solar Cells 113

2.7.1 Star-Shaped Molecules 113

2.7.2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 115

2.7.3 Perovskite 119

2.7.4 Control of Active Layer Nanomorphology 120

2.7.5 Phosphonium Halides as Processing Additives and Interfacial Modifiers 121

2.7.6 Polymeric Solar Cells 121

2.8 Fuel Cells 123

2.8.1 Porosity Additive 125

2.8.2 Electrolyte Membranes 126

2.8.3 Molybdenum Oxide 130

2.8.4 Nano-Metal Oxides 131

2.8.5 Coolant Additive 131

2.8.6 Membrane Exchange Humidifier 133

2.8.7 Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposites 134

3 Medical Uses 145

3.1 High Performance Additive Manufactured Scaffolds 145

3.1.1 Nanotechnology 145

3.1.2 Poly(caprolactone)Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds 146

3.1.3 Silk Fibroin Nanofibers 147

3.1.4 Calcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, and Poly(d,l-lactic acid) 152

3.1.5 Propylene Fumarate Lactic Acid Copolymer 152

3.1.6 Thermosensitive Composite Gel 153

3.1.7 Biomimetic Wet-Stable Fibers 153

3.1.8 Poly(ester urea) from l-Leucine 154

3.1.9 Static Cell Seeding Versus Vacuum Cell Seeding 154

3.1.10 Controlled Drug Release 155

References 156

4 Lubricants 159

4.1 Fuels 159

4.1.1 Graphene Oxide 159

4.1.2 Deposit Control 160

4.2 Lubricant Additives 161

4.2.1 GL Ratings 161

4.2.2 Organophosphates 162

4.2.3 Crankcase Oils 162

4.2.4 Low Sulfur and Low Metal Additive Formulations 163

4.2.5 Lithium Soaps 166

4.2.6 Titanium Complex Grease Composition 171

4.2.7 Improving theWetting Properties of Ionic Liquids 176

4.3 Anti-Wear Additives 179

4.3.1 Ionic Liquids 179

4.3.2 Castor Oil Tris(diphenyl phosphate) 179

4.3.3 Bifunctional Hairy Silica Nanoparticles 180

4.3.4 Boron Thiophosphite 180

4.3.5 Hydroxyaromatic Compounds 181

4.4 Fluid Loss Control Additives 183

4.4.1 Graphene Oxide 183

4.4.2 Montmorillonite 183

4.5 Warm Mix Asphalt Additives 184

5 Concrete Additives 189

5.1 Properties of Concrete 189

5.1.1 Pozzolans 191

5.1.2 Calcium Aluminate Cement 191

5.1.3 Rutting of Bituminous Concrete 193

5.2 Set Retarders 193

5.2.1 Superplasticizers 194

5.3 Accelerators 194

5.3.1 Aqueous Dispersions of Silica 195

5.3.2 Non-Chloride Cement Accelerators 195

5.4 Dispersants and Thinners 196

5.4.1 Xylonic Acid 196

5.4.2 Thixotropy 197

5.4.3 Flowability 198

5.5 Defoamers 199

5.5.1 Ethoxylated Fatty Alcohol Acrylates 200

5.5.2 Hydroxyl Alkyl Acrylate 200

5.5.3 Tributyl Phosphate 202

5.5.4 Silicone Oils 202

5.5.5 Other Additives 202

5.6 Shrinkage Compensation 202

5.7 Permeability 203

5.7.1 Expanded Perlite 204

5.7.2 Pozzolanic Materials 204

5.7.3 Cracking Catalyst 205

5.8 Air Entraining Agents 206

5.8.1 Fluorochemical Surfactants 207

5.8.2 Superabsorbent Polymers 207

5.8.3 Rubber Crumb 208

5.8.4 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete 209

5.9 Corrosion Protection 210

5.9.1 Modified Hydrotalcites 210

5.9.2 Chloride Ion Scavenging 210

5.9.3 Dopamelanin 211

5.10 Superabsorbent Polymers 212

5.11 Fibers 212

5.11.1 Poly(oxymethylene) Fibers 212

5.12 Additives fromWastes 214

5.12.1 Waste Rubber 214

5.12.2 anomodified Concrete Additive 216

References 220

6 Other Uses 225

6.1 High Performance Additive for Powder Coatings 225

6.1.1 Antimicrobial Powder Coatings 225

6.2 Radiation Shielding 226

6.3 Superabsorbent Polymers 229

6.4 Laser Additive Manufacturing of High

Performance Materials 232

6.4.1 Laser Metal Deposition Additive Manufacturing 232

6.4.2 Hybrid Processes 233

6.5 High Temperature Cooling Application 234

References 236

Index 239

Tradenames 239

Acronyms 242

Chemicals 244

General Index 255