Electrochemical energy storage has played important roles in energy storage technologies for portable electronics and electric vehicle applications. During the past thirty years, great progress has been made in research and development of various batteries, in term of energy density increase and cost reduction. However, the energy density has to be further increased to achieve long endurance time. In this book, recent research and development in advanced electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage devices are presented, including lithium ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries and metal-air batteries, sodium ion batteries and supercapacitors. The materials involve transition metal oxides, sulfides, Si-based material as well as graphene and graphene composites.