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Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation: 2G/2.5G/3G...Evolution to 4G

Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation: 2G/2.5G/3G...Evolution to 4G

Ajay R. Mishra (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-01471-4

Dec 2006

542 pages

In Stock

$170.00

Description

A highly practical guide rooted in theory to include the necessary background for taking the reader through the planning, implementation and management stages for each type of cellular network.

Present day cellular networks are a mixture of the technologies like GSM, EGPRS and WCDMA. They even contain features of the technologies that will lead us to the fourth generation networks. Designing and optimising these complex networks requires much deeper understanding. Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation presents radio, transmission and core network planning and optimisation aspects for GSM, EGPRS and WCDMA networks with focus on practical aspects of the field. Experts from each of the domains have brought their experiences under one book making it an essential read for design practitioners, experts, scientists and students working in the cellular industry.

Key Highlights

  • Focus on radio, transmission and core network planning and optimisation
  • Covers GSM, EGPRS, WCDMA network planning & optimisation
  • Gives an introduction to the networks/technologies beyond WCDMA, and explores its current status and future potential
  • Examines the full range of potential scenarios and problems faced by those who design cellular networks and provides advice and solutions all backed up with real-world examples

This text will serve as a handbook to anyone engaged in the design, deployment, performance and business of Cellular Networks.

""Efficient planning and optimization of mobile networks are key to guarantee superior quality of service and user experience. They also form the essential foundation for the success of future technology development, making this book a valuable read on the road towards 4G.""
—Tero Ojanperä, Chief Technology Officer, Nokia Networks

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Forewords xiii

Acknowledgements xvii

Introduction xix

1 Cellular Networks 1
Ajay R Mishra

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 First Generation Cellular Networks 1

1.2.1 NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony) 1

1.2.2 AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) 2

1.3 Second Generation Cellular Networks 2

1.3.1 D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) 3

1.3.2 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) 3

1.3.3 GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) 3

1.3.4 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) 9

1.3.5 EDGE (Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution) 10

1.4 Third Generation Cellular Networks 10

1.4.1 CDMA2000 10

1.4.2 UMTS 10

1.4.3 HSDPA in UMTS 12

2 Radio Network Planning and Optimisation 15
Johanna Kähkönen, Nezha Larhrissi, Cameron Gillis, Mika Särkioja, Ajay R Mishra and Tarun Sharma

2.1 Radio Network Planning Process 15

2.1.1 Network Planning Projects 15

2.1.2 Network Planning Project Organisation 16

2.1.3 Network Planning Criteria and Targets 17

2.1.4 Network Planning Process Steps 18

2.2 Preplanning in a GSM Radio Network 21

2.2.1 GSM Network Planning Criteria 21

2.2.2 Introducing GPRS in the GSM Network 22

2.2.3 Introducing EGPRS in the GSM Network 23

2.2.4 WCDMA in UMTS 26

2.3 Radio Network Dimensioning 29

2.3.1 Link Budget Calculations 29

2.3.2 Dimensioning in the EGPRS Network 34

2.3.3 Dimensioning in the WCDMA Radio Network 34

2.4 Radio Wave Propagation 40

2.4.1 Okumura–Hata Model 41

2.4.2 Walfish–Ikegami Model 43

2.4.3 Ray Tracing Model 44

2.4.4 Model Tuning 45

2.5 Coverage Planning 46

2.5.1 Coverage Planning in GSM Networks 46

2.5.2 Coverage Planning in EGPRS 54

2.5.3 Coverage Planning in WCDMA Networks 57

2.6 Capacity Planning 57

2.6.1 Capacity Planning in GSM Networks 57

2.6.2 EGPRS Capacity Planning 62

2.6.3 Capacity Planning in WCDMA Networks 69

2.7 Frequency Planning 71

2.7.1 Power Control 73

2.7.2 Discontinuous Transmission 74

2.7.3 Frequency Hopping 74

2.7.4 Interference Analysis 75

2.8 Parameter Planning 76

2.8.1 Parameter Planning in the GSM Network 76

2.8.2 Parameter Planning in the EGPRS Network 78

2.8.3 Parameter Planning in the WCDMA Network 87

2.9 Radio Network Optimisation 106

2.9.1 GSM Radio Network Optimisation Process 106

2.9.2 Optimisation in the EGPRS Network 162

2.9.3 Optimisation in the WCDMA Network 181

3 Transmission Network Planning and Optimisation 197
Ajay R Mishra and Jussi Viero

3.1 Access Transmission Network Planning Process 197

3.1.1 Master Planning 197

3.1.2 Detail Planning 198

3.2 Fundamentals of Transmission 199

3.2.1 Modulations 199

3.2.2 Multiple Access Schemes 199

3.3 Digital Hierarchies – PDH and SDH 201

3.3.1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) 201

3.3.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) 203

3.3.3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 217

3.4 Microwave Link Planning 234

3.4.1 Microwave Link 236

3.4.2 Microwave Tower 242

3.4.3 Microwave Link Design 242

3.4.4 LOS Check 246

3.4.5 Link Budget Calculation 247

3.4.6 Repeaters 251

3.5 Microwave Propagation 253

3.5.1 Slow Fading 253

3.5.2 Fast Fading 256

3.5.3 Overcoming Fading 264

3.6 Interface Planning 268

3.6.1 Abis Planning 269

3.6.2 Dynamic Abis 269

3.6.3 Interface Planning in the UMTS Access Transmission Network 272

3.7 Topology Planning 280

3.8 Frequency Planning and Interference 282

3.8.1 Loop Protection 284

3.9 Equipment Planning 285

3.9.1 BSC and TCSM Planning 285

3.10 Timeslot Planning 286

3.10.1 Linear TS Allocation 286

3.10.2 Block TS Allocation 286

3.10.3 TS Grouping 286

3.10.4 TS Planning in the EDGE Network 287

3.12 Transmission Management 291

3.12.1 Element Master 292

3.12.2 Management Buses 292

3.13 Parameter Planning 293

3.13.1 BTS/AXC Parameters 293

3.13.2 RNC Parameters 294

3.14 Transmission Network Optimisation 296

3.14.1 Definition of Transmission 296

3.14.2 GSM/EDGE Transmission Network Optimisation 299

3.14.3 UMTS Transmission Network Optimisation 303

4 Core Network Planning and Optimisation 315
James Mungai, Sameer Mathur, Carlos Crespo and Ajay R Mishra

Part I Circuit Switched Core Network Planning and Optimisation 315

4.1 Network Design Process 315

4.1.1 Network Assessment 315

4.1.2 Network Dimensioning 319

4.2 Detailed Network Planning 323

4.3 Network Evolution 327

4.3.1 GSM Network 327

4.3.2 3GPP Release 99 Network 328

4.3.3 3GPP Release 4 Network 329

4.3.4 3GPP Release 5 and 6 Networks 332

4.4 3GPP Release 4 Circuit Core Network 335

4.4.1 Release 4 Core Network Architecture 335

4.4.2 CS Network Dimensioning 335

4.5 CS Core Detailed Network Planning 352

4.5.1 Control Plane Detailed Planning 352

4.5.2 Control Plane Routing 358

4.6 User Plane Detailed Planning 359

4.6.1 Configuring Analyses in the MSS 359

4.6.2 Routing Components of the MSC Server 360

4.6.3 User Plane Routing 360

4.7 CS Core Network Optimisation 368

4.7.1 Key Performance Indicators 368

4.7.2 Network Measurements 369

4.7.3 CS Core Network Audit 370

4.7.4 Audit Results Analysis 375

4.7.5 Network Optimisation Results 379

Part II Packet Switched Core Network Planning and Optimisation 379

4.8 Introduction to the PS Core Network 379

4.8.1 Basic MPC Concepts 380

4.8.2 Packet Routing (PDP Context) 382

4.8.3 Interface of the GPRS with the 2G GSM Network 384

4.9 IP Addressing 385

4.9.1 Types of Network 385

4.9.2 Dotted-Decimal Notation 386

4.9.3 Subnetting 387

4.10 IP Routing Protocols 388

4.11 Dimensioning 390

4.11.1 GPRS Protocol Stacks and Overheads 390

4.12 IP backbone Planning and Dimensioning 397

4.12.1 Current Network Assessment 397

4.12.2 Dimensioning of the IP Backbone 398

4.12.3 Bandwidth Calculations 399

4.13 Mobile Packet Core Architecture Planning 399

4.13.1 VLAN 401

4.13.2 Iu-PS Interface 401

4.13.3 Gn Interface Planning 401

4.13.4 Gi Interface Planning 402

4.13.5 Gp Interface Planning 403

4.14 Packet Core Network Optimisation 404

4.14.1 Packet Core Optimisation Approaches 404

4.14.2 Packet Core Optimisation – Main Aspects 405

4.14.3 Key Performance Indicators 408

4.14.4 KPI Monitoring 409

4.15 Security 410

4.15.1 Planning for Security 410

4.15.2 Operational Security 411

4.15.3 Additional Security Aspects 411

4.16 Quality of Service 412

4.16.1 Introduction to QoS 412

4.16.2 QoS Environment 412

4.16.3 QoS Process 412

4.16.4 QoS Performance Management 414

5 Fourth Generation Mobile Networks 417
Ajay R Mishra

5.1 Beyond 3G 417

5.2 4G Network Architecture 417

5.3 Feature Framework in a 4G Network 418

5.3.1 Diversity in a 4G Network 418

5.4 Planning Overview for 4G Networks 419

5.4.1 Technologies in Support of 4G 420

5.4.2 Network Architectures in 4G 421

5.4.3 Network Planning in 4G Networks 421

5.5 OFDM 423

5.5.1 What Is OFDM? 423

5.5.2 MIMO Systems 425

5.6 All-IP Network 427

5.6.1 Planning Model All-IP Architecture 428

5.6.2 Quality of Service 432

5.7 Challenges and Limitations of 4G Networks 435

5.7.1 Mobile Station 435

5.7.2 Wireless Network 435

5.7.3 Quality of Service 437

Appendix A: Roll-Out Network Project Management 439
Joydeep Hazra

A.1 Project Execution 439

A.2 Network Implementation 440

A.2.1 Site Selection and Acquisition 440

A.2.2 Provision of Site Support Elements 444

A.2.3 Site Planning and Equipment Installation 444

A.2.4 Legal Formalities and Permissions 445

A.2.5 Statutory and Safety Requirements 446

A.3 Network Commissioning and Integration 446

A.3.1 Confirming the Checklist 447

A.3.2 Powering-Up and System Precheck 447

A.3.3 Commissioning 447

A.3.4 Inspection and Alarm Testing 448

A.3.5 Parameter Finalisation 448

A.3.6 Tools and Macros 449

A.3.7 Integration of Elements 449

A.3.8 System Verification and Feature Testing 451

A.3.9 System Acceptance 452

A.4 Care Phase 453

A.4.1 Care Agreement 453

A.4.2 Care Services 455

A.4.3 Other Optional O&M Assistance Services 462

Appendix B: HSDPA 467
Rafael Sánchez-Mejías

B.1 Introduction 467

B.2 HSDPA Performance 468

B.3 Main Changes in HSDPA 468

B.3.1 HSDPA Channels 469

B.3.2 MAC Layer Split 470

B.3.3 Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) Scheme 471

B.3.4 Error Correction (HARQ) 471

B.3.5 Fast Packet Scheduling 472

B.3.6 Code Multiplexing (Optional) 473

B.3.7 Impact on the Iub Interface 474

B.4 Handset Capabilities 475

B.5 HSDPA Planning and Dimensioning 476

B.5.1 Planning Basics 476

B.5.2 HSDPA Dimensioning 476

B.5.3 HSDPA Planning 478

B.6 Further Evolution: Release 6 HSDPA, HSUPA and HSPA 480

B.6.1 HSDPA Release 6 Improvements 480

B.6.2 HSUPA 480

Appendix C: Digital Video Broadcasting 483
Lino Dalma

C.1 Introduction 483

C.2 Handheld Television: Viewing Issues 483

C.3 System Issues of DVB-H and Broadband Wireless 484

C.4 Mobile Broadcasting 485

C.5 Mobile Broadcasting 485

C.5.1 DVB-H Technology Overview 486

C.6 DVB-H Introduction 486

C.6.1 Motivation for Creating DVB-H 486

C.6.2 Overview of Mobile TV Broadcasting Technology (DVB-H) 487

C.6.3 Overview of DVB-T 488

C.6.4 DVB-H Innovative Elements 490

C.6.5 DVB-T and DVB-H Coexistence 491

Conclusion 492

Appendix D: TETRA Network Planning 493
Massimiliano Mattina

D.1 TETRA Standard 493

D.2 TETRA Services 495

D.3 TETRA Network Elements 496

D.4 TETRA Main Features 499

D.4.1 Physical Layer 500

D.4.2 TETRA Memorandum of Understanding 502

D.5 Introduction to TETRA Network Planning 502

D.5.1 Radio Network Planning 503

D.5.2 Traffic Capacity Planning 505

Suggested Reading 507

Index 511