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Advanced Chipless RFID: MIMO-Based Imaging at 60 GHz - ML Detection

Advanced Chipless RFID: MIMO-Based Imaging at 60 GHz - ML Detection

Nemai Chandra Karmakar, Mohammad Zomorrodi, Chamath Divarathne

ISBN: 978-1-119-22733-5

Aug 2016

304 pages

$100.99

Description

Introduces advanced high-capacity data encoding and throughput improvement techniques for fully printable multi-bit Chipless RFID tags and reader systems

The book proposes new approaches to chipless RFID tag encoding and tag detection that supersede their predecessors in signal processing, tag design, and reader architectures. The text is divided into two main sections: the first section introduces the fundamentals of electromagnetic (EM) imaging at mm-wave band to enhance the content capacity of Chipless RFID systems. The EM Imaging through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technique is used for data extraction. The second section presents a few smart tag detection techniques for existing chipless RFID systems. A Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) based tag detection technique improves the spectral efficiency and increases data bit capacity. The book concludes with a discussion of how the MIMO approach can be combined with the image based technique to introduce a complete solution with a fast imaging approach to chipless RFID systems. The book has the following salient features:

  • Discusses new approaches to chipless RFID tags such as EM imaging, high capacity data encoding, and robust tag detection techniques
  • Presents techniques to enhance data content capacity of tags and reliable tag detection for the readers at unlicensed microwave and mm-wave 2.45, 24 and 60 GHz instrumentation, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency bands
  • Includes case studies of real-world applications

Preface xi

Acknowledgment xv

PART I EM IMAGE-BASED CHIPLESS RFID SYSTEM 1

1 Introduction 3


1.1 Barcodes as Identification Technology 4

1.2 RFID Systems 6

1.3 Barcodes Versus RFID 7

1.4 Chipless RFID Tag for Low-Cost Item Tagging 7

1.5 Chipless RFID Systems 10

1.6 Spatial-Based Chipless RFID System 16

1.7 Book Outline 17

References 20

2 EM Imaging 25

2.1 EM-Imaging Fundamentals 25

2.2 Range Resolution 27

2.3 Cross-Range or Azimuth Resolution 29

2.4 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Necessity 31

2.5 EM Imaging for Content Coding 34

2.6 Conclusions 35

References 36

3 Tiny Polarizers Secret of the New Technique 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Sweetness of Diffraction 39

3.3 Strip-Line Polarizer 43

3.4 Meander-Line Polarizer 45

3.5 Multiple Polarizers 47

3.6 Polarizer Fabrication 50

3.7 Conclusions 52

References 53

4 Attributes of EM Polarizers 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Suggested Structures as Effective EM Polarizers 56

4.3 Cross-Polar Working Basis 59

4.4 Effect of Highly Reflective Items 64

4.5 Secure Identification 68

4.6 Bending Effect on Tag Performance 71

4.7 Conclusion 74

References 76

5 System Technical Aspects 77

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 The mm-Band of 60 GHz 77

5.3 Reader Antenna 81

5.4 Conclusions 106

References 107

6 SAR-Based Signal Processing 111

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 SAR Modes of Operation 112

6.3 SAR Block Diagram 113

6.4 SAR-Based Signal Processing 113

6.5 Tag Imaging Results 116

6.6 System Downsides 125

6.7 Conclusions 128

References 129

7 Fast Imaging Through MIMO-SAR 131

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Conventional Phased Array Antenna 132

7.3 MIMO-SAR Systems 133

7.4 Optimization 143

7.5 MIMO-SAR Results 155

7.6 Conclusion 158

References 159

PART II ADVANCED TAG DETECTION TECHNIQUES FOR CHIPLESS RFID SYSTEMS 161

8 Introduction 163

8.1 RFID Systems 163

8.2 Review of Chipless RFID Tag Detection Techniques 167

8.3 Maximum Likelihood Detection Techniques 168

8.4 Conclusions 170

References 170

9 Chipless RFID Tag Design 177

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 SISO Tag Design 177

9.3 MIMO Tag Design 179

9.4 Conclusions 188

References 188

10 ML Detection Techniques for SISO Chipless RFID Tags 189

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 System Models–Time Domain 190

10.3 System Models–Frequency Domain 200

10.4 Simulations 205

10.5 Experimental Setup 207

10.6 Results 208

10.7 Conclusion 230

References 230

11 Computationally Feasible Tag Detection Techniques 233

11.1 Introduction 233

11.2 Bit-By-Bit Detection Method 234

11.3 Trellis-Tree-Based Viterbi Decoding 237

11.4 Simulation Setup 242

11.5 Results 244

11.6 Conclusions 246

References 246

12 Signal Processing for MIMO-Based Chipless RFID Systems 247

12.1 Introduction 247

12.2 MIMO Decomposing Techniques 249

12.3 Tag Detection in MIMO 251

12.4 Experimental Setup 253

12.5 Simulations 254

12.6 Results 258

12.7 Conclusion 268

Reference 268

13 Conclusion for Part II 269

13.1 Summary of The Proposed Techniques in Part II 269

13.2 Limitations of The Proposed System 271

13.3 Potential Applications 272

13.4 Future Work and Open Issues 273

Reference 274

Index 275