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Advanced Coating Materials

Advanced Coating Materials

Liang Li (Co-Editor), Qing Yang (Co-Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-40763-8 November 2018 546 Pages

 E-Book

$180.99

Description

This book covers the recent advances in coating materials and their novel applications at the cross-section of advanced materials both current and next-generation. Advanced Coatings Materials contains chapters covering the latest research on polymers, carbon resins, and high-temperature materials used for coatings, adhesives, and varnishes today. Concise chapters describe the development, chemical and physical properties, synthesis and polymerization, commercial uses, and other characteristics for each raw material and coating detailed. A comprehensive, yet practical source of reference, this book provides an excellent foundation for comparing the properties and performance of coatings and selecting the most suitable materials based on specific service needs and environmental factors.

Preface xvii

Part I: Materials and Methods: Design and Fabrication 1

1 The Science of Molecular Precursor Method 3
Hiroki Nagai and Mitsunobu Sato

1.1 Metal Complex 4

1.2 Molecular Precursor Method 6

1.3 Counter Ion (Stability) 6

1.4 Conversion Process from Precursor Film to Oxide Thin Film 8

1.5 Anatase–Rutile Transformation Controlled by Ligand 8

1.6 Homogeneity 11

1.7 Miscibility 13

1.8 Coatability (Thin Hydroxyapatite Coating of Ti Fiber Web Scaffolds) 13

1.9 Oxygen-Deficient Rutile Thin Films 15

1.10 Cu Thin Film 16

1.11 Applications Using the Molecular Precursor Method 20

1.12 Conclusion 22

References 23

2 Cold Spray—Advanced Coating Process and 3D Modeling 29
Muhammad Faizan-Ur-Rab, Saden H. Zahiri and Syed H. Masood

2.1 Introduction 30

2.1.1 Cold Spray Equipment 31

2.1.1.1 CGT KINETIKS 3000 CS System 31

2.1.1.2 Plasma Giken PCS 1000 System 32

2.1.1.3 Impact Innovations ISS 5/8 and 5/11 CS Systems 33

2.1.2 Applications of Cold Spray Coatings 35

2.2 3D Numerical Modeling of Cold Spray Coating 36

2.2.1 Computational Domain and Boundary Conditions in Numerical Model 37

2.2.2 Three-Dimensional Grid 40

2.2.3 Particle-Fluid Interaction 41

2.3 Experimental Methods of Cold Spray Coatings for Validation of 3D Model 44

2.3.1 Measurement of Substrate’s Temperature 44

2.3.2 Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) 45

2.4 Results and Discussions 48

2.4.1 3D Model Calibration 48

2.4.2 Effect of Propellant Gas 51

2.4.3 Effect of Nozzle Length 53

2.4.4 Particle’s Temperature 56

2.5 Conclusion 59

References 60

3 Effects of Laser Process Parameters on Overlapped Multipass/Multitrack Hardened Bead Parameters of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Using Continuous-Wave Rectangular Beam 65
D.S. Badkar

3.1 Introduction 66

3.2 Experimental Methodology 70

3.2.1 Principle of Rectangular Beam 70

3.2.2 Materials Used and Experimental Set-Up 70

3.2.3 Fixture Fabrication 73

3.2.3.1 Bottom Plate 74

3.2.3.2 The Top Plate 75

3.2.4 Specimen Preparation 76

3.2.5 Phase Transformations of Ti-6Al-4V During Laser Transformation Hardening 78

3.2.5.1 Laser Heating 78

3.2.5.2 Cooling or Self Quenching 78

3.3 Results and Discussion 78

3.3.1 Effect of Laser Process Parameters on Overlapped Multipass/Multitrack Hardened Bead Parameters 78

3.4 Conclusions 82

Acknowledgment 82

References 82

4 Dimensionally Stable Lead Dioxide Anodes Electrodeposited from Methanesulfonate Electrolytes: Physicochemical Properties and Electrocatalytic Reactivity in Oxygen Transfer Reactions 85
Olesia Shmychkova, T. Luk’yanenko and A. Velichenko

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 Chemical Composition of Coatings 89

4.3 Electrocatalytical Properties of Materials 95

4.3.1 p-Nitroaniline Oxidation 98

4.3.2 p-Nitrophenol Oxidation 100

4.3.3 Oxidation of Salicylic Acid and its Derivatives 101

4.4 Electrode Endurance Tests 108

4.5 Conclusions 116

References 118

5 Polycrystalline Diamond Coating Protects Zr Cladding Surface Against Corrosion in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors: Nuclear Fuel Durability Enhancement 123
Irena Kratochvílová, Radek Škoda, Andrew Taylor, Jan Škarohlíd, Petr Ashcheulov and František Fendrych

5.1 Introduction 124

5.2 Zr Alloy Surface Corrosion—General Description 128

5.3 Growth of Polycrystalline Diamond as Anticorrosion Coating on Zr Alloy Surface 131

5.4 Properties of PCD-Coated Zr Alloy Samples Processed in Autoclave 135

5.4.1 Oxidation of Autoclave-Processed PCD-Coated Zr Samples 135

5.4.2 Composition Changes of PCD-Coated Zr Alloy Compared to Autoclaved Zr Alloy and PCD-Coated Zr Alloy 137

5.4.2.1 Capacitance Measurements, NanoESCA, X-Ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Neutron Transmission, and Mass Spectrometry 137

5.4.2.2 Raman, SEM, and SIMS Analysis of the Autoclave-Processed Samples 143

5.4.3 Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Autoclaved PCD Layer-Covered Zr Alloy 145

5.4.4 Radiation Damage Test of Autoclaved PCD-Covered Zr Alloy Sample: Ion Beam Irradiation 147

5.5 PCD Coating Increases Operation Safety and Prolongs the Zr Nuclear Fuel Cladding Lifetime—Overall Summaries 148

5.6 Conclusion 153

Acknowledgments 154

References 154

6 High-Performance WC-Based Coatings for Narrow and Complex Geometries 157
Satish Tailor, Ankur Modi and S. C.Modi

6.1 Introduction 157

6.2 Experimental 159

6.2.1 Feedstock Powder 159

6.2.2 Substrate Preparation and Coating Deposition 159

6.2.3 Why Choosing 45° and 70° Angles to Design the Connectors 163

6.2.4 Characterizations 163

6.3 Results and Discussion 164

6.3.1 Coating Mechanism Behind the Uniform Coating Properties at Both Spray Angles 45° and 70° 164

6.3.2 Coating Microstructures 164

6.3.3 Microhardness of the “As-Sprayed” Coatings 166

6.3.4 X-Ray Diffraction 167

6.3.5 Residual Stress Analysis 169

6.3.6 Adhesion Strength of the Coatings 171

6.4 Conclusions 172

References 172

Part II: Coating Materials Nanotechnology 175

7 Nanotechnology in Paints and Coatings 177
Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Oluranti Agboola, Ibrahim David Ibrahim, Peter Apata Olubambi, BabulReddy Avabaram, Manjula Bandla, Williams Kehinde Kupolati, Jayaramudu Tippabattini, Kokkarachedu Varaprasad, Stephen Chinenyeze Agwuncha, Jonas Mochane, Oluyemi Ojo Daramola, Bilainu Oboirien, Taoreed Adesola Adegbola, Clara Nkuna, Sheshan John Owonubi, Victoria Oluwaseun Fasiku, Blessing Aderibigbe, Vincent Ojijo, Regan Dunne, Koena Selatile, Gertude Makgatho, Caroline Khoathane, Wshington Mhike, Olusesan Frank Biotidara, Mbuso Kingdom Dludlu, AO Adeboje, Oladimeji Adetona Adeyeye, Abongile Ndamase, Samuel Sanni, Gomotsegang Fred Molelekwa, Periyar Selvam, Reshma Nambiar, Anand Babu Perumal, Jarugula Jayaramudu, Nnamdi Iheaturu, Ihuoma Diwe and Betty Chima

7.1 Introduction 178

7.1.1 Paint and Coating 178

7.1.2 Nanopaints and Nanocoatings 180

7.1.2.1 Some Uses of Nanopaints in Different Materials 181

7.1.2.2 Nanomaterials in Paints 183

7.1.3 Types of Nanocoating 189

7.1.3.1 Superhydrophobic Coating 190

7.1.3.2 Oleophobic/Hydrophobic Coating 191

7.1.3.3 Hydrophilic Coatings 191

7.1.3.4 Ceramic, Metal and Glass Coatings 192

7.2 Application of Nanopaints and Nanocoating in the Automotive Industry 195

7.3 Application of Nanopaints and Nanocoating in the Energy Sector 196

7.4 Application of Nanocoating in Catalysis 198

7.5 Application of Nanopaints and Nanocoating in the Marine Industry 200

7.6 Applications of Nanopaints and Nanocoating in the Aerospace Industry 200

7.7 Domestic and Civil Engineering Applications of Nanopaints and Coating 202

7.8 Medical and Biomedical Applications of Nanocoating 205

7.8.1 Antibacterial Applications of Nanocoating 205

7.9 Defense and Military Applications of Nanopaints and Coatings 227

7.10 Conclusion 228

7.11 Future Trend 228

References 229

8 Anodic Oxide Nanostructures: Theories of Anodic Nanostructure Self-Organization 235
Naveen Verma, Jitender Jindal, Krishan Chander Singh and Anuj Mittal

8.1 Introduction 235

8.2 Anodization 237

8.3 Barrier-Type Anodic Metal Oxide Films 237

8.4 Porous-Type Anodic Metal Oxide Films 238

8.5 Theories or Models of Growth Kinetics of Anodic Oxide Films and Fundamental Equations for High-Field Ionic Conductivity 239

8.5.1 Guntherschulze and Betz Model 239

8.5.2 Cabrera and Mott Model 240

8.5.3 Verwey’s High Field Model 242

8.5.4 Young Model 243

8.5.5 Dignam Model 244

8.5.6 Dewald Model: (Dual Barrier Control with Space Charge) 244

8.6 Corrosion Characteristics and Related Phenomenon 246

8.7 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 249

8.8 Characterization Techniques 250

References 251

9 Nanodiamond Reinforced Epoxy Composite: Prospective Material for Coatings 255
Ayesha Kausar

9.1 Introduction 256

9.2 Nanodiamond: A Leading Carbon Nanomaterial 256

9.3 Epoxy: A Multipurpose Thermoset Polymer 258

9.4 Nanodiamond Dispersion in Epoxy: Impediments and Challenges 259

9.5 Epoxy/Nanodiamond Coatings 261

9.6 Coating Formulation 262

9.7 Industrial Relevance of Epoxy/ND Coatings 264

9.7.1 Strength and High Temperature Demanding Engineering Application 264

9.7.2 Thermal Conductivity Relevance 266

9.7.3 Microwave Absorbers 268

9.7.4 In Biomedical 268

9.8 Summary, Challenges, and Outlook 269

References 270

10 Nanostructured Metal–Metal Oxides and Their Electrocatalytic Applications 275
Kemal Volkan Özdokur, Süleyman Koçak and Fatma Nil Ertaş

10.1 Brief History of Electrocatalysis 276

10.2 Electrocatalytic Activity 278

10.3 Oxygen Reduction Reaction 280

10.4 Transition Metal Chalcogenides and Their Catalytic Applications 281

10.5 Preparation of Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces 296

10.6 Polyoxometallates (POM) 303

10.7 Future Trends in Electrocatalysis Applications of Metal/metal oxides 305

References 305

Part III: Advanced Coating Technology and Applications 315

11 Solid-Phase Microextraction Coatings Based on Tailored Materials: Metal–Organic Frameworks and Molecularly Imprinted Polymers 317
Priscilla Rocío-Bautista, Adrián Gutiérrez-Serpa and Verónica Pino

11.1 Solid-Phase Microextraction 317

11.2 HS-SPME-GC Applications Using MOF-Based Coatings 320

11.2.1 Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) 320

11.2.2 SPME Coating Fibers Based on MOFs 322

11.3 DI-SPME-LC Applications Using MIP-Based Coatings 331

11.3.1 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) 332

11.3.2 SPME Coating Fibers Based on MIPs 333

11.3.3 MIPs and MOFs Features as SPME Coatings 340

11.4 Conclusions and Trends 341

Acknowledgements 341

References 342

12 Investigations on Laser Surface Modification of Commercially Pure Titanium Using Continuous-Wave Nd:YAG Laser 349
Duradundi Sawant Badkar

12.1 Introduction 350

12.2 Experimental Design 354

12.3 Experimental Methodology 355

12.4 Results and Discussions 358

12.4.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Response Surface Full Model 358

12.4.2 Validation of the Models 366

12.4.3 Effect of Process Factors on Hardened Bead Profile Parameters 370

12.4.3.1 Heat Input (HI) 370

12.4.3.2 Hardened Bead Width (HBW) 370

12.4.3.3 Hardened Depth (HD) 374

12.4.3.4 Angle of Entry of Hardened Bead Profile (AEHB) 377

12.4.3.5 Power Density (PD) 381

12.4.4 Microstructural Analysis 384

12.5 Conclusions 387

Acknowledgements 390

References 390

13 Multiscale Engineering and Scalable Fabrication of Super(de)wetting Coatings 393
William S. Y. Wongand Antonio Tricoli

13.1 Introduction 394

13.2 Fundamentals of Wettability and Superwettability 395

13.2.1 Defining Hydrophilicity and Hydrophobicity 397

13.2.2 Defining Superhydrophilicity and Superhydrophobicity 398

13.2.2.1 Wenzel’s Model 398

13.2.2.2 Cassie–Baxter’s Model 399

13.2.2.3 Contact Angle Hysteresis 400

13.2.2.4 Variants of Superhydrophilicity 402

13.2.2.5 Ideal Superhydrophilicity 402

13.2.2.6 Hemiwicking Superhydrophilicity 402

13.2.2.7 Variants of Superhydrophobicity 403

13.2.2.8 Ideal Lotus Superhydrophobicity 403

13.2.2.9 Petal-Like Adhesive Superhydrophobicity 404

13.2.3 Defining Superoleophobicity,Superamphiphobicity and Superomniphobicity 405

13.2.3.1 Superoleophobicity and Superamphiphobicity 405

13.2.3.2 Superomniphobicity 407

13.2.3.3 Re-Entrant Profiles 407

13.2.3.4 Shades of Grey: Superoleo(amphi)phobicity to Superomniphobicity 408

13.2.4 Characterization Techniques 409

13.2.4.1 Static Contact Angle Analysis 409

13.2.4.2 Dynamic Contact Angle Analysis—Contact Angle Hysteresis 411

13.2.4.3 Dynamic Contact Angle Analysis—Sliding Angle 412

13.2.4.4 Other Modes of Dynamic Analysis— Droplet Bouncing and Fluid Immersion 412

13.3 Nature to Artificial: Bioinspired Engineering 413

13.3.1 Superhydrophilicity 414

13.3.2 “Lotus-Like” Low-Adhesion Superhydrophobicity 416

13.3.3 “Rose Petal-Like” High-Adhesion Superhydrophobicity 416

13.3.4 Anisotropic Low-Adhesion/High-Adhesion Superhydrophobicity 417

13.3.5 Superhydrophobic–Hydrophilic Patterning 418

13.3.6 Superoleo(amphi)phobicity 418

13.4 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Nanotexturing Approaches 419

13.4.1 Templating 419

13.4.2 (Photo)-Lithography 420

13.4.3 Scalable Bottom-Up Texturing Approaches 421

13.5 Superhydrophilicity 421

13.5.1 The State of Superhydrophilicity 421

13.5.1.1 Plasma and Ozone Surface Hydroxylation 421

13.5.1.2 Aerosol Deposition 422

13.5.1.3 Electrospinning 423

13.5.1.4 Chemical Etching Hydroxylation 424

13.5.1.5 Wet-Deposition 424

13.5.1.6 Sol–Gel and Photoactivation 424

13.5.1.7 Thiol-Functionalization Superhydrophobicity 425

13.6 Superhydrophobocity 426

13.6.1 Ideal Lotus Slippery Superhydrophobicity 426

13.6.1.1 Plasma 426

13.6.1.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition 427

13.6.1.3 Spraying (Wet Spray, Liquid-fed Flame Spray, Sputtering) 428

13.6.1.4 Wet-Deposition 433

13.6.1.5 Sol-Gel 434

13.6.1.6 Electrodeposition 435

13.6.1.7 Chemical Etching 436

13.6.2 Petal-Like Adhesive Superhydrophobicity 437

13.6.2.1 Templating 437

13.6.2.2 Liquid-Fed Flame Spray Pyrolysis 438

13.6.2.3 Sol–Gel and Hydrothermal Synthesis 438

13.6.2.4 Electrospinning 440

13.6.2.5 Electrodeposition 441

13.6.2.6 Micro- and Nanostructural Self-Assembly 441

13.6.2.7 Mechanical Methods 442

13.7 Superoleophobicity and Superamphiphobicity 443

13.7.1 Nanofilaments, Fabric Fibers, Meshes, and Tubes 443

13.7.2 Aerosol-Coating (Wet-Spray, Candle Soot / Liquid-Fed Flame Spray) 445

13.7.2.1 Wet-Spray Deposition 445

13.7.2.2 Flame Soot Deposition 445

13.7.2.3 Flame Spray Pyrolysis 447

13.7.3 Sol–Gel 448

13.7.4 Wet-Coating (Dip- and Spin-Coating) 448

13.7.4.1 Dip-Coating 448

13.7.4.2 Spin-Coating 449

13.7.5 Micro- and Nanostructural Self-Assembly 449

13.7.6 Electrospinning 450

13.7.7 Electrodeposition and Electrochemical Etching 450

13.7.7.1 Electrochemical Etching 450

13.7.7.2 Electrodeposition 451

13.8 Superomniphobicity 452

13.8.1 Electrospun Beads on Mesh-Like Profiles 453

13.8.2 Controlled Sol–Gel Growth 455

13.8.3 Etched Aluminum Meshes 455

13.8.4 Hybridized Lithography 455

13.9 Conclusions 456

References 457

14 Polymeric Materials in Coatings for Biomedical Applications 481
Victoria Oluwaseun Fasiku, Shesan John Owonubi, Emmanuel Mukwevho, Blessing Aderibigbe, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Yolandy Lemmer, Idowu David Ibrahim, Jonas Mochane, Oluyemi Ojo Daramola, Koena Selatile, Abongile Ndamaseand Oluranti Agboola

14.1 Introduction 482

14.1.1 Coating Materials 483

14.2 Polymeric Coating Materials 484

14.2.1 Structure, Synthesis, and Properties 485

14.2.1.1 Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) 485

14.2.1.2 Parylene 486

14.2.1.3 Polyurethane (PU) 487

14.2.2 Coating Methods 489

14.2.3 Biomedical Coating Applications 492

14.2.3.1 Antifouling Coating 492

14.2.3.2 Nanoparticle Coating for Drug Delivery 493

14.2.3.3 Implants Coating 495

14.2.3.4 Cardiovascular Stents 497

14.2.3.5 Antimicrobial Surface Coating 498

14.2.3.6 Drug Delivery Coating 499

14.2.3.7 Tissue Engineering Coating 500

14.2.3.8 Sensor Coating 501

14.3 Conclusion 502

References 503

Index 519