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Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding: Fundamentals, Properties, and Applications

Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding: Fundamentals, Properties, and Applications

Maciej Jaroszewski , Sabu Thomas , Ajay V. Rane

ISBN: 978-1-119-12861-8

Nov 2018

464 pages

Select type: Hardcover

In Stock

$225.00

Description

A comprehensive review of the field of materials that shield people and sensitive electronic devices from electromagnetic fields

Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding offers a thorough review of the most recent advances in the processing and characterization of the electromagnetic shielding materials. In this groundbreaking book, the authors—noted experts in the field—discuss the fundamentals of shielding theory as well as the practice of electromagnetic field measuring techniques and systems. They also explore applications of shielding materials used as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation, or as magnetic shields and explore coverage of new advanced materials for EMI shielding in aerospace applications. In addition, the text contains methods of preparation and applicability of metal foams.

This comprehensive text examines the influence of technology on the micro-and macrostructure of polymers enabling their use in screening technology, technologies of shielding materials based on textiles, and analyses of its effectiveness in screening. The book also details the method of producing nanowires and their applications in EM shielding. This important resource:

  • Explores the burgeoning market of electromagnetic shielding materials as we create, depend upon, and are exposed to more electronic devices than ever
  • Addresses the most comprehensive issues relating to electromagnetic fields
  • Contains information on the manufacturing, characterization methods, and properties of materials used to protect against them  
  • Discusses the important characterization techniques compared with one another, thus allowing scientists to select the best approach to a problem

Written for materials scientists, electrical and electronics engineers, physicists, and industrial researchers, Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding explores all aspects in the area of electromagnetic shielding materials and examines the current state-of-the-art and new challenges in this rapidly growing area.

List of Contributors xv

1 EMI Shielding Fundamentals 1
M. K. Aswathi, Ajay V. Rane , A. R. Ajitha, Sabu Thomas, and Maciej Jaroszewski

1.1 Fundamentals of EMI Shielding Theory 1

1.2 Materials for EMI Shielding 3

1.3 Mechanism of EM Shielding Materials 3

References 8

2 EM Noise and Its Impact on Human Health and Safety 11
Halina Aniołczyk

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Impact of Non‐ionizing EMFs on Humans 13

2.3 Overview of Most Common Sources of EMFs in the Occupational and Residential Modern Human Environment 16

2.4 Protection Against EMFs in European and International Law 19

2.5 Assessment of the Level of EMFs in the Workplaces 22

2.6 Assessment of EMF Levels in Inhabited Area 25

2.7 Assessment of the Level of EMF From Hi‐tech Equipment for Personal Use 26

2.8 Needs and Possibilities of Shielding to Reduce the Exposure to EMF 29

2.9 Summary 30

References 31

3 Electromagnetic Field Sensors 35
Vishnu Priya Murali, Jickson Joseph, and Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 How are EMFs Produced? 36

3.2.1 Natural Sources 37

3.2.2 Man‐Made Sources 37

3.2.2.1 Low‐Frequency EMF Sources 37

3.2.2.2 High‐Frequency EMF Sources 38

3.3 Electromagnetic Field Measurements 38

3.3.1 Magnetic Field Measurement Techniques 38

3.3.1.1 Induction Based Sensors 39

3.3.1.2 Fluxgate Sensors 42

3.3.1.3 SQUID Magnetometer 44

3.3.1.4 Hall Probes 46

3.3.1.5 Magneto‐Resistors 47

3.3.1.6 Scalar Magnetometers 49

3.3.2 Electric Field Measurements 51

3.3.2.1 Electric Field Probes 51

3.3.2.2 Electron Drift Instrument 53

3.3.3 Power Density Measurements 55

3.4 Conclusion 56

References 56

4 Shielding Efficiency Measuring Methods and Systems 61
Saju Daniel and Sabu Thomas

4.1 Introduction 62

4.1.1 Mechanism of Shielding 62

4.1.2 Shielding Effectiveness 62

4.1.2.1 Absorption Loss 64

4.1.2.2 Reflection Loss 64

4.1.2.3 Multiple Reflection Correction Factor 65

4.2 Calculation of Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness 65

4.2.1 Calculation of SE of a Material by Using Plane Wave Theory 65

4.2.2 Calculation of SE of a Metal Foil 66

4.2.3 Calculation of SE for Near Field Shielding 67

4.2.4 Calculation of SE for Shielding a Low‐Frequency Magnetic Field Source 67

4.2.5 Calculation of Shielding Effectiveness from Scattering Parameters 67

4.3 Effect of Various Parameters on Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness 69

4.4 Types of EMI Shielding Effectiveness Tests 71

4.4.1 Open Field or Free Space Test 71

4.4.2 Shielded Box Test 71

4.4.3 Coaxial Transmission Line Test 72

4.4.4 Shielded Room Test 73

4.5 Shielding Effectiveness Measurement Methods and Systems 73

4.5.1 Test Methods Using Plaque Measurements 74

4.5.1.1 Testing Methods Based on MIL‐STD‐285T 74

4.5.1.2 Modified Radiation Method for Shielding Effectiveness Testing Based on MIL‐G83528 75

4.5.1.3 Dual Mode Stirred Chamber 76

4.5.1.4 Apertured Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) Cell in a Reverberating Chamber 77

4.5.1.5 Dual TEM Cell Method 77

4.5.1.6 Split TEM Cell 78

4.5.1.7 ASTM ES‐7 Dual Chamber Test Fixture 78

4.5.1.8 ASTM ES‐7 Coaxial Transmission Line 78

4.5.1.9 ASTM D 4935 Circular Coaxial Transmission Line Holder 79

4.5.1.10 Enclosure Measurement Techniques 81

4.5.1.11 Injection Molded Enclosure Test Method 81

4.5.1.12 IEEE‐STD‐299 81

4.5.2 Free Space Methods 82

4.5.2.1 Free‐Space Measurement Techniques in the Frequency Domain 82

4.5.2.2 Free‐Space Measurement Techniques in the Time Domain 83

4.6 Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cable 84

4.6.1 Measurement of Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cable 84

4.7 Measurement of Transfer Impedance of Conductive Gasket 85

4.8 Summary 86

References 86

5 Electrical Characterization of Shielding Materials 89
B. J. Madhu

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Basics of Electrostatics 89

5.2.1 Electrostatic Field 89

5.2.2 Electrical Potential Energy 91

5.2.3 Electric Potential and Electric Field Strength 92

5.3 Electrical Conductivity 93

5.3.1 Current and Current Density 93

5.3.2 Resistivity 94

5.3.3 DC Conductivity 95

5.3.4 AC Conductivity 97

5.4 Electric Fields in Materials 98

5.4.1 Dielectrics 98

5.4.2 Polarization 98

5.5 Dielectric Properties 101

5.5.1 Static Dielectric Constant 101

5.5.2 Complex Dielectric Constant and Dielectric Losses 102

5.6 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials 103

5.6.1 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding 103

5.6.2 Conductive Shielding Materials 104

5.6.3 Dielectric Shielding Materials 105

References 105

6 Magnetic Field Shielding 109
Qiang Zhang

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Theories of Magnetic Field Shielding 110

6.2.1 Magnetic Field 110

6.2.2 Magnetic Circuit and Magnetic Reluctance 111

6.2.3 Shielding of Magnetic Field 112

6.2.3.1 Shielding of High Frequency Magnetic Field 112

6.2.3.2 Shielding of Low Frequency or Static Magnetic Field 112

6.2.4 Design of Multilayer Shielding 114

6.2.4.1 Case (a) 115

6.2.4.2 Case (b) 115

6.2.5 Design of Magnetic Shielding Room 116

6.3 Standard Shielding Materials 116

6.3.1 Basic Magnetic Parameters 116

6.3.2 Metallic and Ferromagnetic Materials 118

6.3.3 Ferrite Materials 119

6.3.4 Superconducting Materials 120

6.3.5 Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Alloys 120

6.4 Multilayer Ferromagnetic Matrix Composite Materials 121

6.4.1 Fe–Ni Alloy/Fe/Fe–Ni Alloy Multilayer Composite 122

6.4.1.1 Fabrication 122

6.4.1.2 Microstructure Characterization 122

6.4.1.3 Geomagnetic Shielding Property: Experiment and Calculation 122

6.4.1.4 Shielding Mechanism 128

6.4.2 Fe–Al Alloy/Fe/Fe–Al Alloy Multilayer Composite 128

6.4.2.1 Fabrication 128

6.4.2.2 Microstructure Characterization 129

6.4.2.3 Geomagnetic Shielding Property: Experiment and Calculation 130

6.4.2.4 Shielding Mechanism 134

6.5 Sandwich Composite/Structure Shielding System 134

6.5.1 Fe/Fe‐Al Alloy/Fe Sandwich Composite 135

6.5.1.1 Fabrication 135

6.5.1.2 Microstructure Characterization 135

6.5.1.3 Magnetic Shielding Property 136

6.5.1.4 Shielding Mechanism 140

6.5.2 Composite/Polyester/Composite Sandwich Structure 141

6.5.2.1 Fabrication 141

6.5.2.2 Geomagnetic Shielding Property 141

6.5.2.3 Shielding Mechanism 143

6.6 Summary 143

References 144

7 Recent Progress in Electromagnetic Absorbing Materials 147
Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Aastha Dutta, Priyanka Mishra, and Sabu Thomas

7.1 Introduction 147

7.1.1 Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Materials 149

7.2 Core– Shell Structured Electromagnetic Absorbing Materials 151

7.3 CNM‐ Based Electromagnetic Absorbing Material 153

7.3.1 Carbon Nanotubes/Polymer Nanocomposites for Electromagnetic Shielding 154

7.3.2 Carbon Nanofiber Based EMI Shielding Materials 156

7.4 Graphene Based Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 158

7.5 Challenges and Prospect 160

References 160

8 Flexible and Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 167
Bishakha Ray, Saurabh Parmar, and Suwarna Datar

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 Theory of Transparent EMI Shielding 168

8.3 Transparent Thin Films for EMI Shielding 169

8.4 Nanocarbon Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 170

8.5 Conducting Polymer‐Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 172

8.6 Nanowire Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 172

8.7 Conclusions 174

References 175

9 Polymer‐Based EMI Shielding Materials 177
Chong Min Koo, Faisal Shahzad, Pradip Kumar, Seunggun Yu, Seung Hwan Lee, and Jun Pyo Hong

9.1 Introduction 178

9.1.1 Need for Polymer‐Based EMI Shielding Materials 178

9.1.2 Factors Effecting EMI SE 180

9.2 Types of Polymer Matrixes 181

9.2.1 Insulating Polymers 181

9.2.2 Intrinsically Conducting Polymers 181

9.3 Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding Applications 184

9.3.1 Carbon Based Filler Materials 184

9.3.1.1 Graphite 184

9.3.1.2 Carbon Fiber 186

9.3.1.3 Carbon Nanotube 186

9.3.1.4 Carbon Black 188

9.3.1.5 Graphene 189

9.3.2 Magnetic Fillers 190

9.3.2.1 Magnetic Fillers and Carbon Materials in Insulating Polymer Matrix 190

9.3.2.2 Magnetic Fillers with Carbon Materials in Conducting Polymer Matrix 192

9.3.2.3 All‐Magnetic Fillers in Insulating Polymer Matrix 194

9.3.2.4 All‐Magnetic Fillers in Conducting Polymer Matrix 198

9.3.3 Metal‐Based Filler Materials 199

9.4 Structured Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 203

9.4.1 Foamed Structures 204

9.4.2 Sandwiched Structures 209

9.4.3 Segregated Structures 210

9.5 Future Perspectives 212

References 213

10 Textile Based Shielding Materials 219
Julija Baltušnikaitė‐Guzaitienė and Sandra Varnaitė‐Žuravliova

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Materials for Production of EMI Textiles 220

10.2.1 Polymers in EMI Textiles 221

10.2.2 Conductive Coatings 222

10.2.3 Compounding with Conductive Fillers 222

10.2.4 Inherently (Intrinsically) Conductive Polymers (ICP) 223

10.3 Development Trends of Textile Based Shielding Materials 224

10.3.1 Shielding Materials Based on Conductive Fillers 224

10.3.2 Shielding Materials Based on Fabric Formation Technology 226

10.3.3 Shielding Materials Based on Fabric Surface Modification 226

10.4 Methods of Shielding Effectiveness Measurement 228

10.4.1 Coaxial Transmission Line Method 228

10.4.2 Shielded Box Method 229

10.4.3 Shielded Room Method 230

10.4.4 Open Field or Free Space Method 230

10.4.5 Waveguide Method 232

10.5 Conclusions 232

References 233

11 Graphene and CNT Based EMI Shielding Materials 241
M.D. Teli and Sanket P. Valia

11.1 Introduction to Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 241

11.1.1 Introduction to Graphene Based Materials 241

11.1.2 Introduction to CNT Based Materials 241

11.2 Brief Outline of Synthesis of EMI Shielding Materials 242

11.2.1 Brief Outline of Synthesis of Graphene Based Materials 242

11.2.2 Brief Outline of Synthesis of CNT Based Materials 244

11.2.2.1 Electric Arc Discharge 244

11.2.2.2 Laser Ablation 245

11.2.2.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 245

11.3 General Characteristic of EMI Shielding Materials 245

11.3.1 General Characteristic of Graphene Based Materials 245

11.3.2 General Characteristic of CNT Based Materials 246

11.4 EMI Shielding Properties of EMI Shielding Materials 246

11.4.1 EMI Shielding Properties of Graphene Based Materials 246

11.4.2 EMI Shielding Properties of CNT Based Materials 250

11.5 Overview of Structure and EMI Shielding Property Relationship and Their Applications 251

11.5.1 Structure and EMI Shielding Property Relationship of Graphene Based Materials 251

11.5.2 Structure and EMI Shielding Property Relationship of CNT Based Materials 254

11.6 Future Scope of Research and Application of these Materials 256

11.7 Conclusions 257

References 257

12 Nanocomposites Based EMI Shielding Materials 263
Hossein Yahyaei and Mohsen Mohseni

12.1 Nanomaterials and Nanocomposite Materials 263

12.2 EMI Shielding Materials 264

12.3 Electromagnetic Wave and EMI Shielding Mechanism 265

12.4 Carbonous EMI Shielding Nanocomposites 266

12.4.1 Graphene 266

12.4.1.1 Graphene Synthesis 267

12.4.1.2 Case Studies 267

12.4.2 Carbon Nanotubes 272

12.4.2.1 Single‐Walled Carbon Nanotubes 273

12.4.2.2 Carbon Nanotube Properties 274

12.4.2.3 Case Studies 274

12.4.3 Carbon Nanofibers 277

12.4.3.1 Vapor Grown CNFs 277

12.4.3.2 Electrospun CNFs (ECNFs) 278

12.4.3.3 Case Studies 278

12.5 Other EMI Shielding Nanocomposites 280

12.5.1 Mechanical Properties 281

12.5.2 Corrosion Resistance 281

12.5.3 Electrical Conductivity 281

12.5.4 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 282

12.5.5 Case Studies 282

References 284

13 Silver Nanowires as Shielding Materials 289
Feng Xu, Wenfeng Shen, Wei Xu, Jia Li, and Weijie Song

13.1 Introduction 289

13.2 Scalable Synthesis of AgNWs 290

13.3 Fabrication of Shielding Materials Based on Silver Nanowire/Polymer Conductive Composites 294

13.4 Properties of Shielding Materials Based on Silver Nanowire/Polymer Conductive Composites 295

13.4.1 Morphological Properties 295

13.4.2 Electrical Properties 297

13.4.3 EMI Properties 298

13.5 Conclusion 301

References 302

14 Advanced Carbon Based Foam Materials for EMI Shielding 305
A. R. Ajitha, Anu Surendran, M. K. Aswathi, V. G. Geethamma, and Sabu Thomas

14.1 Introduction 305

14.2 Carbon Hybrid Materials for EMI Shielding 306

14.2.1 Carbon Foam (CF) 306

14.2.2 Graphene Foam 309

14.2.3 Carbon–Carbon Composites 315

14.2.4 Carbon Aerogels 316

14.2.5 Colloidal Graphite 320

14.3 Conclusion 322

References 322

15 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials for Aerospace Application: A State of the Art 327
Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Martin George Thomas, Jiji Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas

15.1 Introduction 327

15.2 Radiation in Space Environment 328

15.3 Electromagnetic Radiated Field 330

15.3.1 Low Intensity Radiated Field 331

15.3.2 High Intensity Radiated Field 332

15.4 Electromagnetic Interference in Aerospace 332

15.4.1 Classification of Electromagnetic Interference 333

15.4.2 Effect of Electromagnetic Shielding 333

15.5 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Mechanism for Various Materials 336

15.6 Requirement of Shielding Materials for Aerospace 337

15.7 Types of Shielding Materials for Aerospace 338

15.7.1 Metals Enclosure Based EMI Shielding Materials 338

15.7.1.1 Design Consideration of Metallic Enclosure for EMI Shielding 342

15.7.2 Porous Structure for EMI Shielding Materials 344

15.7.3 Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 346

15.7.3.1 Metal Coated Polymer for EMI Shielding 346

15.7.3.2 Conducting Polymer Based Materials for EMI Shielding 348

15.7.3.3 Carbonanotube Based Composites for EMI Shielding 349

15.7.3.4 Graphene Based Composites for EMI Shielding 352

15.8 Conclusion 354

References 355

16 Metamaterials as Shielding Materials 367
Yogesh S. Choudhary and N. Gomathi

16.1 Introduction 367

16.2 The Need for EMI Shielding 370

16.3 Why Metamaterials for Shielding Applications? 371

16.4 Metamaterials for Electromagnetic Shielding 371

16.4.1 Microwave Shielding 373

16.4.2 Optical and Near IR Shielding 375

16.4.3 Frequency Selective Shielding 376

16.5 Design and Fabrication of Metamaterials 378

16.5.1 Designing Metamaterials 378

16.5.2 Fabrication of Metamaterials 383

16.6 Other Applications 385

16.6.1 Superlensing 385

16.6.2 Antennas 385

16.7 Challenges in Metamaterials 386

16.8 Summary 386

References 387

17 Double Percolating EMI Shielding Materials Based on Polymer Blend Nanocomposites 393
P. Mohammed Arif, Jemy James, Jiji Abraham, K. Nandakkumar, and Sabu Thomas

17.1 Introduction 394

17.2 Concept of Double Percolation 394

17.3 Carbon Black and Carbon Nanofiber Based Composites 395

17.3.1 Carbon Black Based Composites 395

17.3.2 Carbon Nanofibers 400

17.4 Carbon Nanotube Based Nanocomposites 400

17.5 Hybrid Filler Based Nanocomposites 405

17.6 Conclusion 407

References 407

18 Mechanical Performance Characterization of EMI Shielding Materials Using Optical Experimental Techniques 409
Wenfeng Hao, Can Tang, and Jianguo Zhu

18.1 Introduction 409

18.2 Characterizing the In‐Plane Mechanical Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 410

18.2.1 Digital Image Correlation (DIC) 410

18.2.2 Moire Interfere 411

18.2.3 Photoelastic Method 413

18.3 Characterizing Out‐of‐Plane Mechanical Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 414

18.4 Characterizing the Fracture and Fatigue Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 415

18.4.1 Caustics 415

18.4.2 Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) 416

18.4.3 Digital Gradient Sensing (DGS) 418

18.5 Concluding Remarks 420

Acknowledgments 420

References 420

Index 425