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Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding: Fundamentals, Properties, and Applications

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Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding: Fundamentals, Properties, and Applications

Maciej Jaroszewski (Editor), Sabu Thomas (Editor), Ajay V. Rane (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-12864-9 November 2018 464 Pages

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Description

A comprehensive review of the field of materials that shield people and sensitive electronic devices from electromagnetic fields

Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding offers a thorough review of the most recent advances in the processing and characterization of the electromagnetic shielding materials. In this groundbreaking book, the authors—noted experts in the field—discuss the fundamentals of shielding theory as well as the practice of electromagnetic field measuring techniques and systems. They also explore applications of shielding materials used as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation, or as magnetic shields and explore coverage of new advanced materials for EMI shielding in aerospace applications. In addition, the text contains methods of preparation and applicability of metal foams.

This comprehensive text examines the influence of technology on the micro-and macrostructure of polymers enabling their use in screening technology, technologies of shielding materials based on textiles, and analyses of its effectiveness in screening. The book also details the method of producing nanowires and their applications in EM shielding. This important resource:

  • Explores the burgeoning market of electromagnetic shielding materials as we create, depend upon, and are exposed to more electronic devices than ever
  • Addresses the most comprehensive issues relating to electromagnetic fields
  • Contains information on the manufacturing, characterization methods, and properties of materials used to protect against them  
  • Discusses the important characterization techniques compared with one another, thus allowing scientists to select the best approach to a problem

Written for materials scientists, electrical and electronics engineers, physicists, and industrial researchers, Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding explores all aspects in the area of electromagnetic shielding materials and examines the current state-of-the-art and new challenges in this rapidly growing area.

List of Contributors xv

1 EMI Shielding Fundamentals 1
M. K. Aswathi, Ajay V. Rane , A. R. Ajitha, Sabu Thomas, and Maciej Jaroszewski

1.1 Fundamentals of EMI Shielding Theory 1

1.2 Materials for EMI Shielding 3

1.3 Mechanism of EM Shielding Materials 3

References 8

2 EM Noise and Its Impact on Human Health and Safety 11
Halina Aniołczyk

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Impact of Non‐ionizing EMFs on Humans 13

2.3 Overview of Most Common Sources of EMFs in the Occupational and Residential Modern Human Environment 16

2.4 Protection Against EMFs in European and International Law 19

2.5 Assessment of the Level of EMFs in the Workplaces 22

2.6 Assessment of EMF Levels in Inhabited Area 25

2.7 Assessment of the Level of EMF From Hi‐tech Equipment for Personal Use 26

2.8 Needs and Possibilities of Shielding to Reduce the Exposure to EMF 29

2.9 Summary 30

References 31

3 Electromagnetic Field Sensors 35
Vishnu Priya Murali, Jickson Joseph, and Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 How are EMFs Produced? 36

3.3 Electromagnetic Field Measurements 38

3.4 Conclusion 56

References 56

4 Shielding Efficiency Measuring Methods and Systems 61
Saju Daniel and Sabu Thomas

4.1 Introduction 62

4.2 Calculation of Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness 65

4.3 Effect of Various Parameters on Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness 69

4.4 Types of EMI Shielding Effectiveness Tests 71

4.5 Shielding Effectiveness Measurement Methods and Systems 73

4.6 Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cable 84

4.6.1 Measurement of Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cable 84

4.7 Measurement of Transfer Impedance of Conductive Gasket 85

4.8 Summary 86

References 86

5 Electrical Characterization of Shielding Materials 89
B. J. Madhu

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Basics of Electrostatics 89

5.4 Electric Fields in Materials 98

5.4.1 Dielectrics 98

5.4.2 Polarization 98

5.5 Dielectric Properties 101

References 105

6 Magnetic Field Shielding 109
Qiang Zhang

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Theories of Magnetic Field Shielding 110

6.3 Standard Shielding Materials 116

6.4 Multilayer Ferromagnetic Matrix Composite Materials 121

6.5 Sandwich Composite/Structure Shielding System 134

6.5.1 Fe/Fe‐Al Alloy/Fe Sandwich Composite 135

6.6 Summary 143

References 144

7 Recent Progress in Electromagnetic Absorbing Materials 147
Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Aastha Dutta, Priyanka Mishra, and Sabu Thomas

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 Core– Shell Structured Electromagnetic Absorbing Materials 151

7.3 CNM‐ Based Electromagnetic Absorbing Material 153

7.4 Graphene Based Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 158

7.5 Challenges and Prospect 160

References 160

8 Flexible and Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 167
Bishakha Ray, Saurabh Parmar, and Suwarna Datar

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 Theory of Transparent EMI Shielding 168

8.3 Transparent Thin Films for EMI Shielding 169

8.4 Nanocarbon Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 170

8.5 Conducting Polymer‐Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 172

8.6 Nanowire Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 172

8.7 Conclusions 174

References 175

9 Polymer‐Based EMI Shielding Materials 177
Chong Min Koo, Faisal Shahzad, Pradip Kumar, Seunggun Yu, Seung Hwan Lee, and Jun Pyo Hong

9.1 Introduction 178

9.2 Types of Polymer Matrixes 181

9.3 Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding Applications 184

9.4 Structured Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 203

9.4.1 Foamed Structures 204

9.5 Future Perspectives 212

References 213

10 Textile Based Shielding Materials 219
Julija Baltušnikaitė‐Guzaitienė and Sandra Varnaitė‐Žuravliova

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Materials for Production of EMI Textiles 220

10.3 Development Trends of Textile Based Shielding Materials 224

10.4 Methods of Shielding Effectiveness Measurement 228

10.5 Conclusions 232

References 233

11 Graphene and CNT Based EMI Shielding Materials 241
M.D. Teli and Sanket P. Valia

11.1 Introduction to Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 241

11.2 Brief Outline of Synthesis of EMI Shielding Materials 242

11.3 General Characteristic of EMI Shielding Materials 245

11.4 EMI Shielding Properties of EMI Shielding Materials 246

11.5 Overview of Structure and EMI Shielding Property Relationship and Their Applications 251

11.6 Future Scope of Research and Application of these Materials 256

11.7 Conclusions 257

References 257

12 Nanocomposites Based EMI Shielding Materials 263
Hossein Yahyaei and Mohsen Mohseni

12.1 Nanomaterials and Nanocomposite Materials 263

12.2 EMI Shielding Materials 264

12.3 Electromagnetic Wave and EMI Shielding Mechanism 265

12.4 Carbonous EMI Shielding Nanocomposites 266

12.5 Other EMI Shielding Nanocomposites 280

References 284

13 Silver Nanowires as Shielding Materials 289
Feng Xu, Wenfeng Shen, Wei Xu, Jia Li, and Weijie Song

13.1 Introduction 289

13.2 Scalable Synthesis of AgNWs 290

13.3 Fabrication of Shielding Materials Based on Silver Nanowire/Polymer Conductive Composites 294

13.4 Properties of Shielding Materials Based on Silver Nanowire/Polymer Conductive Composites 295

13.5 Conclusion 301

References 302

14 Advanced Carbon Based Foam Materials for EMI Shielding 305
A. R. Ajitha, Anu Surendran, M. K. Aswathi, V. G. Geethamma, and Sabu Thomas

14.1 Introduction 305

14.2 Carbon Hybrid Materials for EMI Shielding 306

14.3 Conclusion 322

References 322

15 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials for Aerospace Application: A State of the Art 327
Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Martin George Thomas, Jiji Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas

15.1 Introduction 327

15.2 Radiation in Space Environment 328

15.3 Electromagnetic Radiated Field 330

15.4 Electromagnetic Interference in Aerospace 332

15.5 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Mechanism for Various Materials 336

15.6 Requirement of Shielding Materials for Aerospace 337

15.7 Types of Shielding Materials for Aerospace 338

15.8 Conclusion 354

References 355

16 Metamaterials as Shielding Materials 367
Yogesh S. Choudhary and N. Gomathi

16.1 Introduction 367

16.2 The Need for EMI Shielding 370

16.3 Why Metamaterials for Shielding Applications? 371

16.4 Metamaterials for Electromagnetic Shielding 371

16.5 Design and Fabrication of Metamaterials 378

16.6 Other Applications 385

16.7 Challenges in Metamaterials 386

16.8 Summary 386

References 387

17 Double Percolating EMI Shielding Materials Based on Polymer Blend Nanocomposites 393
P. Mohammed Arif, Jemy James, Jiji Abraham, K. Nandakkumar, and Sabu Thomas

17.1 Introduction 394

17.2 Concept of Double Percolation 394

17.3 Carbon Black and Carbon Nanofiber Based Composites 395

17.4 Carbon Nanotube Based Nanocomposites 400

17.5 Hybrid Filler Based Nanocomposites 405

17.6 Conclusion 407

References 407

18 Mechanical Performance Characterization of EMI Shielding Materials Using Optical Experimental Techniques 409
Wenfeng Hao, Can Tang, and Jianguo Zhu

18.1 Introduction 409

18.2 Characterizing the In‐Plane Mechanical Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 410

18.2.1 Digital Image Correlation (DIC) 410

18.3 Characterizing Out‐of‐Plane Mechanical Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 414

18.4 Characterizing the Fracture and Fatigue Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 415

18.5 Concluding

Remarks 420

Acknowledgments 420References 420

Index 425