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Advanced Materials for Wastewater Treatment

E-Book

$180.99

Advanced Materials for Wastewater Treatment

Shahid Ul-Islam (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-40779-9 September 2017 534 Pages

Description

Over the past few decades, rapid industrialization, fast urban encroachment, and improved agricultural operations have introduced substantial amounts of potentially toxic organic substances into the atmosphere and into the aquatic and terrestrial environments.

Advanced Materials for Wastewater Treatment brings together innovative methodologies and research strategies to remove toxic effluents from wastewaters.With contributions from leading scientists from all around the world, the book provides a comprehensive coverage of the current literature, up-to-date overviews of all aspects of toxic chemical remediation including the role of nanomaterials.

Preface xv

1 Arsenic: Toxic Effects and Remediation 1
Sharf Ilahi Siddiqui and Saif Ali Chaudhry

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Arsenic Concentration in Water 2

1.3 Exposure of Arsenic in Human Body 3

1.4 Metabolism and Excretion of Arsenious Compounds 4

1.5 Arsenic Toxicity and Mechanism 6

1.5.1 Oxidative Stress 6

1.5.2 Binding to Sulfhydryl Group 7

1.5.3 Replacement of Phosphate Group 8

1.5.4 Alternation in the Gene Expression 9

1.5.5 Arsenic Impairs Glucose Catabolism 9

1.6 Detoxification of Arsenic 10

1.6.1 Antioxidants Agents 10

1.6.2 Chelating Agents 11

1.7 Arsenic Remediation Technologies 12

1.8 Adsorption and Recent Advancement 15

1.9 Conclusion 16

Acknowledgment 17

Abbreviations 17

References 18

2 Recent Trends in Textile Effluent Treatments: A Review 29
Shumaila Kiran, Shahid Adeel, Sofia Nosheen, Atya Hassan, Muhammad Usman and Muhammad Asim Rafique

2.1 Introduction 30

2.2 Industrial Dyes, Dying Practices, and Associated Problems 31

2.3 Wastewater Remediation 31

2.4 Physical Methods 33

2.4.1 Adsorption 35

2.4.2 Coagulation and Flocculation 35

2.4.3 Membrane Processes 35

2.4.4 Ultra Filtration 36

2.4.5 Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) 36

2.4.6 Reverse Osmosis 36

2.4.7 Nanofiltration 37

2.5 Chemical Methods 37

2.5.1 Photo Catalytic Degradation of Dyes 37

2.5.2 Oxidation and Photocatalysis with Hydrogen Peroxide 38

2.5.3 Ozonation 39

2.5.4 Degradation of Dyes Using Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) 39

2.5.5 Electrochemical Method 39

2.6 Bioremediation 40

2.7 Products Recognition and Mechanisms of Dye Degradation 40

2.8 Conclusion 42

2.9 Future Outlook 43

References 43

3 Polyaniline as an Inceptive Dye Adsorbent from Effluent 51
Raminder Kaur and Monika Duhan

3.1 Introduction 52

3.1.1 Effluent from the Industries 53

3.2 Pollution Due to Dyes 56

3.2.1 Lethal Effects of Dyes 57

3.3 Methods Used for the Dye Removal 58

3.3.1 Removal of Dyes by Adsorption 59

3.3.1.1 Factors Affecting Adsorption 62

3.4 Adsorption Kinetics 71

3.4.1 Adsorption Isotherms 72

3.5 Polyaniline: An Emerging Adsorbent 74

3.5.1 Polyaniline in Dye Removal 74

3.5.2 Polyaniline in Metal Ions Removal 81

3.5.3 Polyaniline in Phenols Removal 83

3.5.4 Polyaniline in Acid Removal 83

3.6 Conclusion 84

References 84

4 Immobilized Microbial Biosorbents for Wastewater Remediation 101
Mohammad Asaduddin Laskar, Rajeev Kumar and Mohamed A. Barakat

4.1 Introduction 102

4.2 Immobilized Microbial Biosorbent 103

4.2.1 Algae Biosorbent 103

4.2.2 Fungi Biosorbent 106

4.2.3 Bacteria Biosorbent 111

4.3 Biosorption Mechanism 114

4.3.1 Algae-Based Biocomposite 114

4.3.2 Bacteria-Based Bio-Composite 116

4.3.3 Fungi-Based Biocomposite 119

4.4 Conclusion 120

References 122

5 Remediation of Cr (VI) Using Clay Minerals, Biomasses and Industrial Wastes as Adsorbents 129
Rashmi Acharya, Satyabadi Martha and K. M. Parida

5.1 Introduction 130

5.2 Isotherm Models 133

5.2.1 Langmuir Isotherm Model 133

5.2.2 Freundlich Isotherm Model 134

5.2.3 Dubnin–Radushkevich Isotherm Model 135

5.3 Thermodynamics of Adsorption 135

5.4 Kinetics of Adsorption 136

5.4.1 Pseudo-First-Order Kinetics 136

5.4.2 Pseudo-Second–Order Kinetics 137

5.5 Solution pH 137

5.6 Clay Minerals 139

5.6.1 Natural Clay Minerals 139

5.6.2 Natural Clay Minerals Along with Reducing Agents 140

5.6.3 Modified Clay Minerals 140

5.7 Biomasses 146

5.8 Industrial Wastes 159

5.9 Conclusion 161

References 163

6. Microbial Diversity as a Tool for Wastewater Treatment 171
Sadia Ilyas and Haq Nawaz Bhatti

6.1 Overview of Wastewater; Sources, Pollutants, and Characteristics 171

6.1.1 Biodiversity of Wastewater Plants 175

6.2 Role of Dominant Wastewater Treatment Communities in Biodegradation 179

6.2.1 Hydrolytic Microbial Community 179

6.2.2 Acetogenic, Coliforms, and Cyanobacterial Community 181

6.2.3 Denitrifying, Fecal Coliforms, and Fermentative Microbial Community 182

6.2.4 Floc-Forming and Gram-Negative Microbial Community 183

6.2.5 Nocardioforms and Methane-Forming Microbial Community 183

6.2.6 Nitrifying Microbial Community 184

6.2.7 Denitrifying Microbial Community 187

6.2.8 Phosphorous Solubilizing Microbial Community 190

6.2.9 Sulfur Oxidizing and Reducing Microbial Community 197

6.3 Methods for the Treatment of Wastewater 200

6.3.1 Preliminary Treatments 200

6.3.2 Primary Treatments 204

6.3.3 Secondary/Biological Treatments 205

6.3.3.1 Aerated Lagoons and Bioaugmentation 207

6.3.3.2 Trickling Filter Process 211

6.3.3.3 Activated Sludge Process 213

6.3.3.4 Oxidation Ditch and Oxidation Pond Process 214

6.3.3.5 Anaerobic Digestion Process 216

6.3.3.6 Biogenic Enzymatic Wastewater Treatment 216

6.4 Conclusion 218

References 218

7 Role of Plant Species in Bioremediation of Heavy Metals from Polluted Areas and Wastewaters 223
Mayerly Alexandra Oyuela Leguizamo

7.1 Introduction 224

7.2 Heavy Metals (HM) Worldwide 225

7.3 Allochthonous and Autochthonous Plants 227

7.4 Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals (HM) 231

7.4.1 Phytoremediation 231

7.4.2 Phytoremediation Approaches and Technologies 231

7.5 Methodology 238

7.6 Analysis of Research on Heavy Metals (HM) and Native and Endemic Plant Species 238

7.7 Results 249

7.8 Conclusion 249

References 252

8 Bioremediation: A Green, Sustainable and Eco-Friendly Technique for the Remediation of Pollutants 263
Munawar Iqbal, Arif Nazir, Mazhar Abbas, Qudsia Kanwal and Dure Najaf Iqbal

8.1 Introduction 264

8.2 Immobilization 264

8.3 Enzyme Immobilization Strategies 265

8.4 Adsorption 265

8.5 Entrapment 267

8.6 Encapsulation 268

8.7 Covalent Binding 269

8.8 Self-Immobilization 270

8.9 Properties of Immobilized Enzymes 271

8.9.1 Immobilized LiP 271

8.9.2 Immobilized MnP 273

8.9.3 Immobilized Lac 274

8.10 Enzymes Sources 276

8.11 Conditions for Lipid Degradation 276

8.12 Environmental Applications of Ligninolytic Enzymes 279

8.12.1 Degradation and Decolorization of Industrial (Textile) Dyes 279

8.12.2 Dye Decolorization with Free Ligninolytic Enzymes 280

8.12.3 Dye Removal by Immobilized Ligninolytic Enzymes 286

8.12.4 Degradation of Lipids 291

8.12.5 Degradation of Miscellaneous Compounds 292

8.12.6 Xenobiotics and Industrial Effluents 295

8.12.7 Degradation of Aromatic Compounds 296

8.13 Conclusions 299

References 300

9 Role of Plant-Based Biochar in Pollutant Removal: An Overview 313
D.S. Malik, C.K. Jain, Anuj K. Yadav and Sushmita Banerjee

9.1 Introduction 313

9.2 Preparation Methods of Biochar 315

9.2.1 Pyrolysis 315

9.2.2 Slow Pyrolysis 315

9.2.3 Fast Pyrolysis 315

9.2.4 Gasification 315

9.2.5 Hydrothermal Carbonization 315

9.3 Physico-chemical Characterization of Plant-Based Biochar 316

9.3.1 pH 317

9.3.2 Ash Content 317

9.3.3 Moisture Content 317

9.3.4 Bulk Density 317

9.3.5 Elemental Analysis 320

9.3.6 BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) 320

9.3.7 SEM and EDX 320

9.3.8 FTIR 320

9.4 Biochar for Heavy Metal Removal 320

9.5 Biochar for Dye Removal 321

9.6 Biochar for Fluoride Removal 322

9.7 Biochar for Persistent Organic Pollutant Removal 323

9.8 Biochar for Other Pollutant Removal 323

9.9 Biochar for Soil Treatment/Improvement 324

9.10 Conclusion 324

Acknowledgments 325

References 325

10 A Review on Ferrate(VI) and Photocatalysis as Oxidation Processes for the Removal of Organic Pollutants in Water and Wastewater 331
Kyriakos Manoli, Malini Ghosh, George Nakhla and Ajay K. Ray

10.1 Introduction 332

10.2 Ferrate(VI) 335

10.2.1 Introduction 335

10.2.2 Synthesis 336

10.2.2.1 Electrochemical Synthesis 336

10.2.2.2 Wet Chemical Method 338

10.2.2.3 Dry Thermal Method 338

10.2.3 Characterization 338

10.2.4 Oxidation 340

10.2.4.1 Kinetics of the Oxidation of Organics by Ferrate(VI) 340

10.2.4.2 Stoichiometry 341

10.2.4.3 Application and Performance of Ferrate(VI) in Wastewater Treatment 357

10.2.5 Future Directions 359

10.3 Photocatalysis 360

10.3.1 Introduction 360

10.3.1.1 General Concept of Photocatalysis 360

10.3.1.2 Basic Principle of Photocatalysis 361

10.3.2 Design Parameters of Photocatalysis 363

10.3.2.1 Different Aspects of Design Parameters 364

10.3.2.2 Reactor Design Limitations Along with Proposed Solution 365

10.3.3 Photocatalysts 367

10.3.3.1 Doping of TiO2 369

10.3.3.2 Coupled Semiconductors 371

10.3.3.3 Dye-Sensitized Catalyst 373

10.3.4 Challenges and Future Prospects of Photocatalysis 376

10.4 Combination of Photocatalysis (UV/TiO2) and Ferrate(VI) 376

10.5 Conclusion 378

References 379

11 Agro-Industrial Wastes Composites as Novel Adsorbents 391
Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Amina Kamal and Munawar Iqbal

11.1 Introduction 392

11.2 Material and Methods 400

11.2.1 Chemical, Reagent and Instruments 400

11.2.2 Biomass Collection and Preparation 401

11.2.3 Composites Preparation 401

11.2.4 Dye Solution Preparation 402

11.2.5 Adsorption Experiments 402

11.3 Results and Discussion 402

11.3.1 Screening of Adsorbents 402

11.3.2 Effect of pH 403

11.3.3 Effect of Composites Dose 405

11.3.4 Effect of Contact Time 406

11.3.5 Effect of Initial Concentration 406

11.3.6 Effect of Temperature 408

11.3.7 Kinetic Study 409

11.3.8 Intraparticle Diffusion Model 412

11.3.9 Isotherm Modelling 412

11.3.10 Thermodynamic Study 417

11.4 Conclusion 421

References 421

12 A Review on the Removal of Nitrate from Water by Adsorption on Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Biocomposites 433
Wondalem Misganaw Golie, Kaisar Ahmad and Sreedevi Upadhyayula

12.1 Introduction 433

12.1.1 Risks Associated to High Level of Nitrate in Water 434

12.1.2 Technologies for the Removal of Nitrate from Water 435

12.2 Adsorbents for the Removal of Nitrate from Water 437

12.3 Models for Adsorption Process 445

12.3.1 Batch Adsorption Models 445

12.3.1.1 Adsorption Isotherms and Models 446

12.3.1.2 Langmuir Isotherm 446

12.3.1.3 Freundlich Isotherm 447

12.3.1.4 Temkin Isotherm 448

12.3.1.5 Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) Isotherm 448

12.3.1.6 Sips Isotherm 449

12.3.1.7 Redlich–Peterson Isotherm 450

12.3.1.8 Thermodynamic Parameters 450

12.3.1.9 Adsorption Kinetics 452

12.4 Column Study 454

12.4.1 Breakthrough Curve Analysis 455

12.4.2 Models of Column Studies 457

12.4.2.1 Adams-Bohart Model 457

12.4.2.2 Thomas Model 458

12.4.2.3 Yoon and Nelson Model 459

12.4.2.4 Clark Model 460

12.4.2.5 The Wolborska Model 461

12.4.2.6 Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) Model 462

12.5 Conclusion 463

Nomenclatures 464

References 467

13 Nitrate Removal and Nitrogen Sequestration from Polluted Waters Using Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles Synthesized under Ultrasonic Irradiation 479
Mohammadreza Kamali, Maria Elisabete Costa and Isabel Capela

13.1 Introduction 480

13.2 Materials and Methods 483

13.2.1 Experimental 483

13.2.1.1 Reagents 483

13.2.1.2 Synthesis Protocol 483

13.2.2 Characterization 484

13.2.3 Taguchi Design and Reactivity Analysis 485

13.3 Results and Discussion 486

13.3.1 Characterization 486

13.3.2 Reactivity of nZVI 489

13.3.2.1 Statistical Analysis 489

13.3.2.2 Nitrate Removal Reaction: Mechanisms and Pathways 492

13.4 Conclusion 497

Acknowledgments 498

References 498

Index 507