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Advanced Ultrasonic Methods for Material and Structure Inspection

Advanced Ultrasonic Methods for Material and Structure Inspection

Tribikram Kundu (Editor), Dominique Placko (Series Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-61489-1

Mar 2013, Wiley-ISTE

393 pages

$188.99

Description

Ultrasonic signals are increasingly being used for predicting material behavior, both in an engineering context (detecting anomalies in a variety of structures) and a biological context (examining human bones, body parts and unborn fetuses). Featuring contributions from authors who are specialists in their subject area, this book presents new developments in ultrasonic research in both these areas, including ultrasonic NDE and other areas which go beyond traditional imaging techniques of internal defects. As such, both those in the biological and physical science communities will find this an informative and stimulating read.

Preface xiii

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Failure Mechanisms and Ultrasonic

Inspection 1
Kumar V. JATA, Tribikram KUNDU and Triplicane A. PARTHASARATHY

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Issues in connecting failure mechanism, NDE and SHM 2

1.3. Physics of failure of metals 4

1.3.1. High level classification 4

1.3.1.1. Deformation 5

1.3.1.2. Fracture 5

1.3.1.3. Dynamic fatigue 6

1.3.1.4. Material loss 7

1.3.2. Second level classification 7

1.3.2.1. Deformation due to yield 7

1.3.2.2. Creep deformation and rupture 9

1.3.2.3. Static fracture 12

1.3.2.4. Fatigue 13

1.3.2.5. Corrosion 18

1.3.2.6. Oxidation 20

1.4. Physics of failure of ceramic matrix composites 21

1.4.1. Fracture 23

1.4.1.1. Mechanical loads and fatigue 23

1.4.1.2. Thermal gradients 24

1.4.1.3. Microstructural degradation 25

1.4.2. Material loss 25

1.5. Physics of failure and NDE 26

1.6. Elastic waves for NDE and SHM 26

1.6.1. Ultrasonic waves used for SHM 26

1.6.1.1. Bulk waves: longitudinal and shear waves 27

1.6.1.2. Guided waves: Rayleigh and Lamb waves, bar, plate and cylindrical guided waves 28

1.6.2. Active and passive ultrasonic inspection techniques 30

1.6.3. Transmitter-receiver arrangements for ultrasonic inspection 30

1.6.4. Different types of ultrasonic scanning 31

1.6.5. Guided wave inspection technique 32

1.6.5.1. One transmitter and one receiver arrangement 32

1.6.5.2. One transmitter and multiple receivers arrangement 35

1.6.5.3. Multiple transmitters and multiple receivers arrangement 36

1.6.6. Advanced techniques in ultrasonic NDE/SHM 36

1.6.6.1. Lazer ultrasonics 36

1.6.6.2. Measuring material non-linearity 37

1.7. Conclusion 38

1.8. Bibliography 38

Chapter 2. Health Monitoring of Composite Structures Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves 43
Sauvik BANERJEE, Fabrizio RICCI, Frank SHIH and Ajit MAL

2.1. Introduction 43

2.2. Guided (Lamb) wave propagation in plates 46

2.2.1. Lamb waves in thin plates 51

2.2.2. Lamb waves in thick plates 55

2.3. Passive ultrasonic monitoring and characterization of low velocity impact damage in composite plates 60

2.3.1. Experimental set-up 60

2.3.2. Impact-acoustic emission test on a cross-ply composite plate 64

2.3.3. Impact test on a stringer stiffened composite panel 71

2.4. Autonomous active damage monitoring in composite plates 75

2.4.1. The damage index 76

2.4.2. Applications of the damage index approach 77

2.5. Conclusion 85

2.6. Bibliography 86

Chapter 3. Ultrasonic Measurement of Micro-acoustic Properties of the Biological Soft Materials 89
Yoshifumi SAIJO

3.1. Introduction 89

3.2. Materials and methods 91

3.2.1. Acoustic microscopy between 100 and 200 MHz 91

3.2.2. Sound speed acoustic microscopy 95

3.2.3. Acoustic microscopy at 1.1 GHz 98

3.3. Results 99

3.3.1. Gastric cancer 99

3.3.2. Renal cell carcinoma 103

3.3.3. Myocardial infarction 104

3.3.4. Heart transplantation 106

3.3.5. Atherosclerosis 107

3.4. Conclusion 112

3.5. Bibliography 112

Chapter 4. Corrosion and Erosion Monitoring of Pipes by an Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method 115
Geir INSTANES, Mads TOPPE, Balachander LAKSHMINARAYAN, and Peter B. NAGY

4.1. Introduction 115

4.2. Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring of average wall thickness in pipes 118

4.2.1. Guided wave inspection with dispersive Lamb-type guided modes 119

4.2.2. Averaging in CGV inspection 123

4.2.3. The influence of gating, true phase angle 129

4.2.4. Temperature influence on CGV guided wave inspection 132

4.2.5. Inversion of the average wall thickness in CGV guided wave inspection 134

4.2.6. Additional miscellaneous effects in CGV guided wave inspection 136

4.2.6.1. Fluid loading effects on CGV inspection 136

4.2.6.2. Surface roughness effects on CGV inspection 139

4.2.6.3. Pipe curvature effects on CGV inspection 141

4.3. Experimental validation 145

4.3.1. Laboratory tests 145

4.3.2. Field tests 151

4.4. Conclusion 153

4.5. Bibliography 155

Chapter 5. Modeling of the Ultrasonic Field of Two Transducers Immersed in a Homogenous Fluid Using the Distributed Point Source Method 159
Rais AHMAD, Tribikram KUNDU and Dominique PLACKO

5.1. Introduction 159

5.2. Theory 160

5.2.1. Planar transducer modeling by the distribution of point source method 160

5.2.2. Computation of ultrasonic field in a homogenous fluid using DPSM 161

5.2.3. Matrix formulation 163

5.2.4. Modeling of ultrasonic field in a homogenous fluid in the presence of a solid scatterer 165

5.2.5. Interaction between two transducers in a homogenous fluid 169

5.3. Numerical results and discussion 171

5.3.1. Interaction between two parallel transducers 172

5.3.2. Interaction between an inclined and a flat transducer 184

5.3.3. Interaction between two inclined transducers 185

5.4. Conclusion 186

5.5. Acknowledgments 186

5.6. Bibliography 187

Chapter 6. Ultrasonic Scattering in Textured Polycrystalline Materials 189
Liyong YANG, Goutam GHOSHAL and Joseph A. TURNER

6.1. Introduction 189

6.2. Preliminary elastodynamics 191

6.2.1. Ensemble average response 191

6.2.2. Spatial correlation function 195

6.3. Cubic crystallites with orthorhombic texture 197

6.3.1. Orientation distribution function 197

6.3.2. Effective elastic stiffness for rolling texture 199

6.3.3. Christoffel equation 201

6.3.4. Wave velocity and polarization 202

6.3.5. Phase velocity during annealing 207

6.3.6. Attenuation 210

6.4. Attenuation in hexagonal polycrystals with texture 215

6.4.1. Effective elastic stiffness for fiber texture 216

6.4.2. Attenuation 220

6.4.3. Numerical simulation 223

6.5. Diffuse backscatter in hexagonal polycrystals 229

6.6. Conclusion 232

6.7. Acknowledgments 233

6.8. Bibliography 233

Chapter 7. Embedded Ultrasonic NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors 237
Victor GIURGIUTIU

7.1. Introduction to piezoelectric wafer active sensors 237

7.2. Guided-wave ultrasonic NDE and damage identification 240

7.3. PWAS ultrasonic transducers 242

7.4. Shear layer interaction between PWAS and structure 244

7.5. Tuned excitation of Lamb modes with PWAS transducers 246

7.6. PWAS phased arrays 249

7.7. Electromechanical impedance method for damage identification 255

7.8. Damage identification in aging aircraft panels 258

7.8.1. Classification of crack damage in the PWAS near-field 259

7.8.2. Classification of crack damage in the PWAS medium-field 260

7.8.2.1. Impact detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors 263

7.8.2.2. Acoustic emission detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors 266

7.9. PWAS Rayleigh waves NDE in rail tracks 268

7.10. Conclusion 268

7.11. Acknowledgments 269

7.12. Bibliography 269

Chapter 8. Mechanics Aspects of Non-linear Acoustic Signal Modulation due to Crack Damage 273
Hwai-Chung WU and Kraig WARNEMUENDE

8.1. Introduction 273

8.1.1. Passive modulation spectrum 274

8.1.2. Active wave modulation 275

8.2. Damage in concrete 275

8.3. Stress wave modulation 280

8.3.1. Material non-linearity in concrete 281

8.3.2. Generation of non-linearity at crack interfaces 282

8.3.3. Unbonded planar crack interface in semi-infinite elastic media 289

8.3.4. Unbonded planar crack interface with multiple wave interaction 295

8.3.5. Plane crack with traction 301

8.3.6. Rough crack interface 307

8.4. Summary and conclusion 314

8.5. Bibliography 315

Chapter 9. Non-contact Mechanical Characterization and Testing of Drug Tablets 319
Cetin CETINKAYA, Ilgaz AKSELI, Girindra N. MANI, Christopher F. LIBORDI and Ivin VARGHESE

9.1. Introduction 319

9.2. Drug tablet testing for mechanical properties and defects 321

9.2.1. Drug tablet as a composite structure: structure of a typical drug tablet 321

9.2.2. Basic manufacturing techniques: cores and coating layers 322

9.2.3. Tablet coating 323

9.2.4. Types and classifications of defects in tablets 325

9.2.5. Standard tablet testing methods 327

9.2.6. Review of other works 330

9.3. Non-contact excitation and detection of vibrational modes of drug tablets 332

9.3.1. Air-coupled excitation via transducers 334

9.3.2. LIP excitation via a pulsed lazer 336

9.3.3. Vibration plate excitation using direct pulsed lazer irradiation 338

9.3.4. Contact ultrasonic measurements 340

9.4. Mechanical quality monitoring and characterization 341

9.4.1. Basics of tablet integrity monitoring 341

9.4.2. Mechanical characterization of drug tablet materials 356

9.4.3. Numerical schemes for mechanical property determination 361

9.5. Conclusions, comments and discussions 365

9.6. Acknowledgments 367

9.7. Bibliography 367

Chapter 10. Split Hopkinson Bars for Dynamic Structural Testing 371
Chul Jin SYN and Weinong W. CHEN

10.1. Introduction 371

10.2. Split Hopkinson bars 372

10.3. Using bar waves to determine fracture toughness 374

10.4. Determination of dynamic biaxial flexural strength 380

10.5. Dynamic response of micromachined structures 381

10.6. Conclusion 383

10.7. Bibliography 384

List of Authors 387

Index 391