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Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels, Volume 1: Biofeedstocks and Their Processing

Hardcover

$195.00

Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels, Volume 1: Biofeedstocks and Their Processing

Lalit Kumar Singh (Editor), Gaurav Chaudhary (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-11725-4 January 2017 192 Pages

Description

Biofuels production is one of the most extensively studied fields in the energy sector that can provide an alternative energy source and bring the energy industry closer to sustainability. Biomass-based fuel production, or renewable fuels, are becoming increasingly important as a potential solution for man-made climate change, depleted oil reserves, and the dangers involved with hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”).  The price of oil will always be volatile and changeable, and, as long as industry and private citizens around the world need energy, there will be a need for alternative energy sources.  The area known as “biofuels and biofeedstocks” is one of the most important and quickly growing pieces of the “energy pie.”

But biofuels and biofeedstocks are constantly changing, and new processes are constantly being created, changed, and improved upon.  The area is rapidly changing and always innovative.  It is important, therefore, that books like the volumes in this series are published and the information widely disseminated to keep the industry informed of the state-of-the-art.

This first volume in this groundbreaking new series is a collection of papers from some of the world’s foremost authorities on biofeedstocks and biofuels, covering biofeedstocks and how they are processed.  It is a must-have for any engineer, scientist, technician, or student working in this area.   

1 Production of Bioenergy in the Framework of Circular Economy: A Sustainable Circular System in Ecuador 1
Vega-Quezada Cristhian, Blanco María and Romero Hugo

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Energy and Bioenergy 2

1.1.2 Ecuadorian Case 4

1.2 A Sustainable Circular System in Ecuador 5

1.2.1 Biogas 5

1.2.1.1 CO2 Emissions 8

1.2.1.2 Potential Electricity Power 12

1.2.2 Biodiesel 14

1.2.2.1 Biodiesel in Ecuador 15

1.2.3 Microalgae Biodiesel 16

1.2.3.1 Biomass Production 18

1.2.3.2 Lipid Extraction 18

1.3 Microalgae versus Palm Oil in Ecuador 19

1.3.1 Palm Oil 20

1.3.2 Microalgae Oil 21

1.3.2.1 Microalgae in Open Ponds 23

1.3.2.2 Microalgae in Laminar Photobioreactor 24

1.4 Discussion 27

1.5 Conclusion 29

Acknowledgements 29

References 30

2 The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Composition and Pre-treatments on Tar Formation during Biomass Gasification 33
John Corton, Paula Blanco-Sanchez P., Zakir Khan, Jon Paul McCalmont, Xi Yu, George Fletcher, Steve Croxton, James Sharp, Manosh C. Paul, Ian A. Watson I. and Iain S. Donnison

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Tar Composition 35

2.3 Tar Formation Cell Wall Polymers and Ash Composition 37

2.3.1 The Impact of Plant Type and Blending Upon Tar Production 38

2.3.2 Blending 39

2.3.3 Ash Composition 40

2.4 Thermochemical Pre-treatments for Gasification 41

2.4.1 Torrefaction 41

2.4.2 Slow Pyrolysis 42

2.4.3 Intermediate Pyrolysis 43

2.4.4 Fast Pyrolysis 43

2.5 Processing Options that Exploit Conversion Route Integration 45

2.6 Conclusion 48

Acknowledgements 50

References 50

3 Key Pretreatment Technologies for An Efficient Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosics 55
Archana Mishra and Sanjoy Ghosh

3.1 Introduction 56

3.2 Pretreatment Methods for Lignocellulosic Biomass 58

3.2.1 Parameters for Effective Pretreatment of Lignocellulosics 59

3.2.2 Important Pretreatment Methods 61

3.2.2.1 Physical or Mechanical Methods 61

3.2.2.2 Physico-chemical Methods 62

3.2.2.3 Chemical Methods 67

3.2.2.4 Biological Methods 74

3.3 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 75

References 78

4 Present Status on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production 85
Arindam Kuila, Vinay Sharma, Vijay Kumar Garlapati, Anshu Singh, Lakshmishri Roy and Rintu Banerjee

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 Hydrolysis/Saccharification 87

4.2.1 Cellulase 87

4.2.2 Screening of Cellulase-producing Microorganisms 88

4.2.3 Cellulase Production 90

4.2.4 Factors Affecting the Cellulase Mediated Hydrolysis 90

4.3 Future prospects of enzymatic hydrolysis 93

References 93

5 Biological Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomaterials 97
Sandeep Kaur Saggi, Geetika Gupta and Pinaki Dey

5.1 Introduction 97

5.1.1 Different Source for Bioethanol Production 99

5.1.2 Lignocellulosic Materials 100

5.1.3 Cellulose 101

5.1.4 Hemicellulose 102

5.1.5 Xylan 103

5.1.6 Lignin 104

5.1.7 Lignin Carbohydrate Interactions 106

5.2 Pretreatment 106

5.2.1 Pretreatment 106

5.3 Microbial Pretreatment Process 107

5.3.1 Fungi 107

5.3.2 Bacteria 112

5.4 Conclusion 113

References 113

6 Anaerobic Digestion and the Use of Pre-treatments on Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Improve Biogas Production and Process Economics 121
Laura Williams, Joe Gallagher, David Bryant and Sreenivas Rao Ravella

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Feedstocks Available for AD 124

6.2.1 Lignocellulosic Feedstock Analysis and Substrate Suitability 124

6.2.2 Substrate Parameters and Co-digestion 129

6.3 Feedstock Pre-treatment to Improve AD 130

6.3.1 Available Pre-treatment Processes 131

6.3.2 Pre-treatment Effects on Substrate 133

6.3.3 Effects of Pre-treatment on Methane Yields 134

6.4 Pre-treatment and Optimizing AD 136

6.4.1 Advances in Pre-treatment Methods and AD Conditions 136

6.4.2 Value-added Products and AD 138

6.5 Conclusion 140

Acknowledgments 141

References 141

7 Algae: The Future of Bioenergy 149
Nivas Manohar Desai

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Technological Innovations for Algae Cultivation, Harvesting and Drying 151

7.2.1 Cultivation Practices 152

7.2.1.1 Open Cultivation Systems 152

7.2.1.2 Closed Cultivation Systems (Photobioreactors) 153

7.2.1.3 Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) 154

7.2.1.4 Sea-based Cultivation Systems 157

7.2.2 Harvesting of Biomass 158

7.2.2.1 Settling Ponds 159

7.2.2.2 Filtration 159

7.2.2.3 Centrifugation 159

7.2.2.4 Flotation 160

7.2.2.5 Flocculation 160

7.2.2.6 Electrolytic Coagulation 161

7.2.3 Energy Efficiencies of Harvesting Processes 161

7.2.4 Algal Drying 162

7.3 Algae-based Bioenergy Products 162

7.3.1 Biofuel and Biodiesel 163

7.3.2 Biogas (Biomethane Production) 164

7.3.3 Bioethanol 165

7.3.4 Biohydrogen 167

7.3.4.1 Direct Biophotolysis 167

7.3.4.2 Indirect Biophotolysis 168

7.3.4.3 Photo Fermentation 168

7.4 Concluding Remarks 168

Acknowledgement 169

References 169

Index 173