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Advances in Flow Analysis

Advances in Flow Analysis

Marek Trojanowicz (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-31830-8

Oct 2008

702 pages

In Stock

$372.00

Description

This first book to cover different injection techniques not only provides a comprehensive overview of methodologies and instrumentation, it also covers recent advances in flow method analysis, with an appendix listing additional databases, instrumentation and methods on the Internet.
A definite must-have for every chemist working in this field.

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A Practical Approach to Quantitative Metal Analysis of Organic Matrices (Hardcover $192.00)

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Mass Spectrometry Analysis for Protein-Protein Interactions and Dynamics (Hardcover $122.00)

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Introduction XIX

List of Contributors XXV

I Methodologies and Instrumentation 1

1 Theoretical Aspects of Flow Analysis 3
Fernando A. Iñón and Mabel B. Tudino

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Classification of Flow Systems. Fundamentals 4

1.3 Dispersion in Flow Injection Analysis: From the Movement of Fluids in Open Tubes to Controlled Dispersion 7

1.4 The Measurement of Dispersion 15

1.5 Contribution of the Different Components of a Flow System to Dispersion 21

1.6 Design Equations 29

1.7 Concluding Remarks 38

References 39

2 Injection Techniques in Flow Analysis 43
Víctor Cerdà and José Manuel Estela

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) 44

2.3 Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) 45

2.4 Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) 46

2.5 Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) 53

2.6 Multicommutated Flow Injection Analysis (MCFIA) 61

2.7 Multisyringe Flow Injection Analysis (MSFIA) 63

2.8 Multipumping Flow Systems (MPFS) 69

2.9 Combined Injection Methods 70

2.10 Concluding Remarks 73

References 74

3 Application of Moveable Suspensions of Solid Particles in Flow Analysis 79
Marek Trojanowicz

3.1 Introduction 79

3.2 Solid Microparticles Used in Suspensions in Flow Analysis 81

3.3 Handling Suspensions of Particles in Flow Systems 82

3.4 Detection Methods Employed in Flow Systems with Particle Suspensions 86

3.5 Renewable Columns in Flow Systems 91

3.6 Microfluidics with Processing of Particle Suspensions 94

3.7 Nanoparticles in Flow Systems 98

3.8 Conclusions 100

References 101

4 Batch Injection Analysis 107
Christopher M.A. Brett

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Theory of Batch Injection Analysis 108

4.3 Experimental Aspects – Cell Design and Detection Strategies 110

4.4 Applications of Batch Injection Analysis 114

4.5 Comparison of BIA with Flow Injection Techniques 120

4.6 Future Perspectives 121

References 121

5 Electroosmosis-Driven Flow Analysis 127
Petr Kubán, Shaorong Liu, and Purnendu K. Dasgupta

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Pumping Systems 128

5.3 EOF Pumping Systems 133

5.4 EOF Injection Methods Utilized in FIA, SIA and Micro Total Analysis Systems (m-TAS) 142

5.5 Applications of EOF-Driven Pumping in Flow Analysis 143

5.6 Future Prospects 145

References 145

6 Flow Analysis in Microfluidic Devices 149
Manabu Tokeshi and Takehiko Kitamori

6.1 Introduction 149

6.2 Continuous Flow Chemical Processing in Microfluidic Devices 149

6.3 Flow Injection Analysis in Microfluidic Devices 159

6.4 Perspectives 163

References 165

7 The Concept of Multi-commutation in Flow Analysis 167
Mário A. Feres, Elias A.G. Zagatto, João L.M. Santos, and José L.F.C. Lima

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Concepts 169

7.3 The Discretely Operated Devices 171

7.4 System Design 172

7.5 Tandem Streams 174

7.6 Processes Involving Multi-Commutation 175

7.7 Applications 180

7.8 Conclusions 181

7.9 Trends 181

References 192

8 Advanced Calibration Methods in Flow Injection Analysis 203
Pawe³ Kóscielniak

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Advanced Calibration Procedures 205

8.3 Advanced Calibration Concepts 214

8.4 Trends and Perspectives 219

References 221

9 Multicomponent Flow Injection Analysis 227
Javier Saurina

9.1 Introduction 227

9.2 Principal Strategies for Multicomponent Analysis 229

9.3 Trends and Perspectives 254

References 256

10 Flow Processing Devices Coupled to Discrete Sample Introduction Instruments 265
M. Valcárcel, S. Cárdenas, B.M. Simonet, and R. Lucena

10.1 Introduction: The Problem of Sample Treatment 265

10.2 Roles of Flow Processing Devices 265

10.3 Ways of Coupling Flow Processing Devices to Discrete Sample Introduction Instruments 266

10.4 Coupling Flow Processing Devices to Gas Chromatographs 267

10.5 Coupling Flow Processing Devices to Liquid Chromatographs 271

10.6 Coupling Flow Processing Devices to Capillary Electrophoresis Equipment 274

10.7 Future Prospects 283

References 283

11 On-line Sample Processing Methods in Flow Analysis 291
Manuel Miró and Elo Harald Hansen

11.1 Introduction 291

11.2 On-line Sample Pretreatment Protocols for Aqueous and Air Samples 292

11.3 On-line Processing of Solid Samples: Leaching/Extraction Methods 306

11.4 Trends and Perspectives 307

References 311

12 Flow Analysis and the Internet – Databases, Instrumentation, and Resources 321
Stuart J. Chalk

12.1 Introduction 321

12.2 Databases 321

12.3 Journals 323

12.4 Instrumentation 330

12.5 Standard Methods 330

12.6 Other Useful Websites 337

12.7 Future Directions 339

References 341

II Advances in Detection Methods in Flow Analysis 343

13 Luminescence Detection in Flow Analysis 345
Antonio Molina-Díaz and Juan Francisco García-Reyes

13.1 Introduction 345

13.2 Luminescence Detection in Continuous Flow Systems 346

13.3 Recent Trends and Perspectives 374

References 377

14 Enzymes in Flow Injection Analysis 395
Robert Koncki, Lukasz Tymecki, and Beata Rozum

14.1 Introduction 395

14.2 Enzyme Substrates as Analytes 396

14.3 Methods Based on Enzyme Activity Measurements 412

14.4 Conclusions 416

References 417

15 Flow Potentiometry 425
M. Conceição B.S.M. Montenegro and Alberto N. Araújo

15.1 Introduction 425

15.2 Background Concepts 425

15.3 Electrode Developments and Detector Cell Designs 428

15.4 Flow Analytical Techniques Based on Potentiometry 436

15.5 Trends and Future Prospects 443

References 443

16 Flow Voltammetry 455
Ivano G.R. Gutz, Lúcio Angnes, and Andrea Cavicchioli

16.1 Introduction 455

16.2 Voltammetric/Amperometric Flow Analysis 456

16.3 Strategies for Improving Selectivity, Sensitivity, and Durability 467

16.4 Trends and Perspectives 472

References 473

17 Affinity Interaction Profiling of Protein–Protein and Protein–Ligand Interactions Using Flow Analysis 483
J. Kool, N.P.E. Vermeulen, H. Lingeman, R.J.E. Derks, and H. Irth

17.1 Introduction 483

17.2 Profiling of Noncovalent Protein–Protein and Protein–Ligand Interactions Based on Mass Spectrometry Flow Analysis 485

17.3 Integration of Flow Analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Bioaffinity Screening of Mixtures 490

17.4 Conclusions 502

References 503

18 Atomic Spectroscopy in Flow Analysis 511
José L. Burguera and Marcela Burguera

18.1 Introduction 511

18.2 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 512

18.3 Sample Dilution 519

18.4 Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 520

18.5 Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry 527

18.6 Conclusions and Further Developments 531

References 532

19 Flow Injection Mass Spectrometry 545
Maria Fernanda Giné

19.1 Introduction 545

19.2 FIA-MS Sample Introduction Devices 550

19.3 Flow Systems Coupled to External Ionization Sources – MS 553

19.4 Conclusions 566

References 566

III Applications 575

20 Environmental Applications of Flow Analysis 577
Shoji Motomizu

20.1 Introduction 577

20.2 Analysis of the Aquatic Environment by Flow Methods 577

20.3 Analysis of an Atmospheric Environment by Flow Methods 590

20.4 Analysis of the Geosphere Environment by Flow Methods 594

20.5 Future of Environmental Analysis 595

References 596

21 Flow Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis 601
J. Martínez Calatayud and J.R. Albert-García

21.1 Introduction 601

21.2 Analysis of Pharmaceutical Formulations 602

21.3 Flow Process Analyzers in the Pharmaceutical Industry 626

References 635

22 Industrial and Environmental Applications of Continuous Flow Analysis 639
Kees Hollaar and Bram Neele

22.1 Introduction 639

22.2 Overview of Environmental and Industrial Fields 640

22.3 Applications and Their Ranges 645

22.4 Development of Flow Analysis Applications 658

22.5 Trends in Continuous Flow Analysis 659

References 661

Index 663

""Very informative and achieves its goal of informing readers about advances in different flow analysis techniques. … It is a valuable reference for researchers working in the fields of chromatography, capillary electrophoresis or microfluidic analysis."" (Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, May 2009)