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Advances in Food Biotechnology

Advances in Food Biotechnology

Ravishankar Rai V (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-86450-0

Oct 2015, Wiley-Blackwell

752 pages

$204.99

Description

The application of biotechnology in the food sciences has led to an increase in food production and enhanced the quality and safety of food. Food biotechnology is a dynamic field and the continual progress and advances have not only dealt effectively with issues related to food security but also augmented the nutritional and health aspects of food.

Advances in Food Biotechnology provides an overview of the latest development in food biotechnology as it relates to safety, quality and security. The seven sections of the book are multidisciplinary and cover the following topics:

  • GMOs and food security issues
  • Applications of enzymes in food processing
  • Fermentation technology
  • Functional food and nutraceuticals
  • Valorization of food waste
  • Detection and control of foodborne pathogens
  • Emerging techniques in food processing

Bringing together experts drawn from around the world, the book is a comprehensive reference in the most progressive field of food science and will be of interest to professionals, scientists and academics in the food and biotech industries. The book will be highly resourceful to governmental research and regulatory agencies and those who are studying and teaching food biotechnology.

Contributors xxi

Preface xxvii

I GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY: ARE GMOS THE SOLUTION TO THE FOOD SECURITY ISSUE? 1

1 Biotechnological Approaches for Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crop Production 3
Kathleen L. Hefferon and Abdullah Makhzoum

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The Case for Biofortified Food 3

1.2.1 Biofortified Rice 4

1.2.2 Biofortified Maize and Cassava 4

1.2.3 Biofortified Wheat 5

1.2.4 Oilcrops Biofortified with Omega-3 Fatty Acids 5

1.3 Nutritionally Enhanced Feed Crops 6

1.4 Plants with Other Health Benefits 6

1.5 Biopharmaceuticals Produced in Plants 6

1.6 Genome Editing for Nutritionally Enhanced Plants 7

1.7 Epigenetics and Nutritionally Enhanced Plants 7

1.7.1 Epigenetics in Human Nutrition and Genetic Diseases 8

1.7.2 Epigenetic Approaches to Improving Crops for Human Health 8

1.8 Risk Assessment and Regulation of Nutritionally Enhanced Crops 9

1.9 Conclusions 9

References 10

2 Current and Emerging Applications of Metabolomics in the Field of Agricultural Biotechnology 13
Camilla B. Hill, Daniel A. Dias, and Ute Roessner

2.1 Introduction 13

2.1.1 Metabolomics and Agriculture 13

2.1.2 Metabolomic Technologies 14

2.2 Metabolomics of Cereals for Food Production 16

2.2.1 Targeted Metabolomics 16

2.2.2 Untargeted Metabolomics 16

2.2.3 Safety Evaluation of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops 17

2.3 Metabolomics and its Application in the Production of Wine 18

2.3.1 In the Vineyard 18

2.3.2 Wine Fermentation 20

2.3.3 Wine Characterization 21

2.4 Final Remarks 23

Acknowledgements 23

References 23

3 Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods 27
Gijs A. Kleter and Maryvon Y. Noordam

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Safety Assessment of GM-Crop-Derived Foods 28

3.3 Recurrent Items Addressed during the Food and Feed Safety Assessment 28

3.3.1 Molecular Characterization 29

3.3.2 Comparative Analysis of Agronomic, Phenotypic and Compositional Characteristics 30

3.3.3 Potential Toxicity 31

3.3.4 Potential Allergenicity 32

3.3.5 Nutritional Assessment 34

3.4 Outlook and Future Challenges 35

3.5 Conclusions 36

Acknowledgements 36

References 36

4 Towards a Universal Molecular Approach for the Quality Control of New Foodstuffs 37
Andrea Galimberti, Anna Sandionigi, Antonia Bruno, Ilaria Bruni, Michela Barbuto, Maurizio Casiraghi, and Massimo Labra

4.1 Food Quality and Safety Assessment in the Era of Genomics 37

4.2 DNA Barcoding: General Characteristics and Applications for the Analysis of Modern Foodstuffs 38

4.3 Microbiological Composition of Foodstuffs 38

4.3.1 Fermentation 40

4.3.2 Biopreservation 41

4.3.3 Functionalization 42

4.4 Pathogenic Microorganisms and Food Spoilage 43

4.5 Towards a Molecular Identification of Food-Related Microorganisms 44

4.6 Towards a Standardized Molecular Identification of Food Raw Materials 45

4.6.1 From Molecular-Based Approaches to DNA Barcoding 45

4.6.2 Advantages and Limitations of Food DNA Barcoding in Food Traceability 48

4.6.3 DNA Barcoding and Food Traceability: An Overview 49

4.7 Next-Generation Technologies to Characterize Complex Food Matrices and their Microbiome 50

4.8 Conclusions 51

References 51

5 Mass Spectrometry-Based Approaches in Food Safety 61
Pasquale Ferranti and Gianluca Picariello

5.1 Background 61

5.2 Instrumentation 61

5.3 Mass Spectrometry and Food Safety 63

5.4 Effects of Technological Processing 64

5.5 Microbiological Issues 65

5.6 Genetically Modified Organisms 65

5.7 Food Allergy 66

5.8 Food Metabolomics 67

5.9 Food Lipidomics 67

5.10 Current Challenges and Perspectives 68

References 68

6 Feeding the World: Are Biotechnologies the Solution? 71
Yves Bertheau

6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 Current Situation 72

6.2.1 Is the Diagnosis of World Population Growth Shared? 73

6.2.2 How Many People Can Our Earth Provide For? 74

6.2.3 Is There a Causal Relationship Between Increasing Population Growth and Food Needs? 74

6.2.4 Food as an Element of Speculation and Enrichment 76

6.3 Proposed Solutions 76

6.3.1 Common and General Solutions 77

6.3.2 Reduction of Losses along Supply Chains 78

6.3.3 Increase in the Cultivated Surfaces 80

6.3.4 Increase in Output 81

6.3.5 Biotechnologies to Nourish the World 85

6.4 Conclusion 94

References 95

II APPLICATION OF ENZYMES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY 103

7 Application of Microbial Enzymes in the Food Industry 105
Alane Beatriz Vermelho, Verônica Cardoso, Rodrigo Pires Nascimento, Anderson S. Pinheiro, and Igor Rodrigues de Almeida

7.1 Introduction 105

7.2 The Main Enzymes 106

7.2.1 Hydrolases (EC3) 106

7.2.2 Lyases (EC4) 108

7.2.3 Transferases (EC2) 109

7.3 Main Microorganism Producers of Enzymes 111

7.4 Marine Microbial Enzymes 115

7.5 Dairy Industry 116

7.6 Microbial Enzymes Applied in the Beverage Industry 118

7.6.1 Pectinases 119

7.7 Animal Feed 121

7.8 Targeting Microbial Enzymes of Industrial Interest 123

7.9 Mathematical Models for Enhanced Enzyme Production 124

Acknowledgements 124

References 125

8 Enzymatic Modification of Proteins and Starches for Gluten-Free and Low-Glycaemic-Index Foods for Special Dietary Uses 133
A.M. Calderón de la Barca, A.R. Islas-Rubio, N.G. Heredia, and F. Cabrera-Chávez

8.1 Introduction 133

8.2 Foods for Special Dietary Uses 134

8.3 Wheat Constituents that may Trigger Adverse Reactions 134

8.4 Gluten Proteins: Role in Pathogenesis of Gluten-Related Disorders 135

8.5 Enzymatic Modification of Proteins 136

8.5.1 Hydrolysis of Gluten 137

8.5.2 Transamidation and Transpeptidation of Gluten Proteins 138

8.6 Polysaccharides and the Glucose Response 139

8.6.1 Polysaccharide Hydrolysis by Human Digestion 139

8.6.2 Glucose Response Depending on Food Matrices 140

8.7 Polysaccharide Enzymatic Modification 140

8.7.1 Saccharidases for Producing Resistant Starches 140

8.7.2 Enzyme Cyclization to Reduce Starch Digestion 141

8.8 Conclusions 141

References 141

9 Enzyme Immobilization and its Application in the Food Industry 145
Ahmad Homaei

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 History of Enzyme Immobilization 145

9.3 Carrier Materials for Enzyme Immobilization 146

9.3.1 Biopolymers 146

9.3.2 Synthetic Polymers 146

9.3.3 Hydrogels 146

9.3.4 Inorganic Supports 147

9.3.5 Smart Polymers 147

9.3.6 Conducting Polymers 147

9.3.7 Gold Nanoparticles 147

9.3.8 Magnetic Nanoparticles 148

9.4 Enzyme Immobilization Techniques 148

9.4.1 Protein Adsorption 149

9.4.2 Covalent Binding 149

9.4.3 Physical Entrapment 151

9.4.4 Bioaffinity Interactions 152

9.4.5 Immobilized Multienzymes and Enzyme-Cell Co-Immobilizates 152

9.5 Commercialization and Use of Immobilized Enzymes in the Food Industry 153

9.5.1 Applications of Immobilized Protease 153

9.5.2 Applications of Immobilized Amino Acylase 155

9.5.3 Applications of Immobilized Glucose Isomerase 156

9.5.4 Applications of Immobilized Glucosidases Enzymes 156

9.5.5 Applications of Immobilized Enzymes in the Flavour Industry 158

9.6 Conclusions 159

References 159

10 Enzymes for Food and Beverage Industries: Current Situation, Challenges and Perspectives 165
Antonella Amore and Vincenza Faraco

10.1 Introduction 165

10.2 Application of Enzymes in Food and Beverage Industries 166

10.2.1 Glycoside Hydrolases 166

10.2.2 Pectinase 173

10.2.3 Proteases 173

10.2.4 Lipase 174

10.2.5 Laccase 176

10.2.6 Enzymes for Production of Functional Foods 177

10.3 Tools to Enhance Use of Food Enzymes 178

10.3.1 Production of Food Enzymes from Recombinant Microrganisms 178

10.3.2 Protein and Metabolic Engineering 179

10.3.3 Other Techniques to Enhance Enzymes for the Food Industry 181

10.4 Conclusions, Challenges and Perspectives 182

References 183

11 Enzymes Inhibitors: Food and Non-Food Impacts 191
Nana Akyaa Ackaah-Gyasi, Yi Zhang, and Benjamin K. Simpson

11.1 Introduction 191

11.2 Types of Enzyme Inhibitors 191

11.3 Sources of Enzyme Inhibitors 194

11.4 Isolation and Purification of some Naturally Occurring Enzyme Inhibitors 196

11.5 Mechanisms of Action 196

11.6 Food Uses of Enzyme Inhibitors 198

11.7 Health and Biomedical Uses of Inhibitors 200

11.8 Future of Enzyme Inhibitors 201

References 202

12 Proteases as a Tool in Food Biotechnology 207
Olga Luisa Tavano

12.1 Introduction 207

12.2 Protease Characteristics 207

12.3 Seeking a More Appropriate Protease 209

12.3.1 Finding the Best Source 210

12.3.2 Managing Protease Performance 211

12.4 Modifications in Functional and Sensorial Properties of Food Proteins 212

12.4.1 Functional Properties 212

12.4.2 Taste Modifications 213

12.5 Cheese-Making 213

12.6 Food Additives 214

12.7 Special Diets 214

12.7.1 Reduction of Food Protein Allergy 215

12.7.2 Liberation of Bioactive Peptides 216

12.8 Conclusion 217

References 217

III RECENT ADVANCES IN FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 221

13 Application of Metabolic Engineering in Industrial Fermentative Process 223
Mahbuba Rahman

13.1 Introduction 223

13.2 Metabolic Engineering Strategies for Microbial Strain Improvement 224

13.3 Stages and Tools of Metabolic Engineering 225

13.3.1 Synthesis 225

13.3.2 Analysis 226

13.4 Applications of Metabolic Engineering in Fermentation-Based Food Industries 229

13.5 Yeasts 232

13.5.1 Alcoholic beverages 232

13.5.2 Baker’s Yeast 234

13.5.3 Xylitol 235

13.5.4 Isoprenoids 235

13.5.5 Food Supplement Iron 235

13.6 Bacteria 235

13.6.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) 235

13.6.2 Escherichia Coli 238

13.7 Perspectives 239

References 240

14 Isolation and Selection of Conventional and Non-Conventional Fermentative Yeasts 243
João Simões and Ana Catarina Gomes

14.1 Introduction 243

14.2 Microorganism Relevance in Wine Production 244

14.3 Methods to Recover Fermentative Yeasts 247

14.4 Identification of Fermentative Species 248

14.5 Strain Identification 249

14.6 Fermentative Yeast Phenotypic Characterization 249

14.7 Yeast Improvement Strategies 251

14.7.1 Production and Selection of Non-GMO Yeasts 251

14.7.2 Production of GMO Yeasts 253

14.8 From the Genome to Phenotype 254

14.8.1 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) 255

14.8.2 Selective Genotyping 255

14.8.3 Association Mapping 255

14.8.4 High-Resolution QTL Mapping 256

14.9 Future Perspectives and Challenges 256

References 257

15 Multifunctional Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultures to Improve Quality and Nutritional Benefits in Dairy Products 263
Domenico Carminati, Aurora Meucci, Flavio Tidona, Miriam Zago, and Giorgio Giraffa

15.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Ecology, Taxonomy and Metabolic Activities 263

15.2 Role of LAB in Dairy Products 265

15.2.1 LAB as Dominant Microbiota in Dairy Products 265

15.2.2 LAB as Functional Cultures 267

15.3 LAB Selection and Improvement 268

15.3.1 Classical Selection and Characterization 268

15.3.2 Genomic and Metagenomic Selection 270

15.3.3 Metabolic Engineering: LAB as ‘Cell Factories’ 270

15.3.4 Exploitation of GMOs and Major Concerns 271

15.4 Final Remarks 271

References 272

16 New Biotechnological Approaches in Sourdough Bread Production Regarding Starter Culture Applications 277
Stavros Plessas, Ioanna Mantzourani, Argyro Bekatorou, Athanasios Alexopoulos, and Eugenia Bezirtzoglou

16.1 Introduction 277

16.2 Effect of Sourdough on Product Quality 278

16.2.1 Effect on Textural and Sensory Properties 278

16.2.2 Influence on Nutritional Value 278

16.3 Application of Starter Cultures for Sourdough Bread-Making 278

16.3.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Sourdough Starter Cultures 278

16.3.2 Mixed Sourdough Starter Cultures 279

16.3.3 Novel Sourdough Starter Cultures 280

16.3.4 Enzymes in Sourdough Bread Production 281

16.3.5 Immobilized Starter Cultures in Sourdough Bread Production 282

16.3.6 Application of Sourdough for Gluten-Free Bread Production 282

References 283

17 New Biotechnologies for Wine Fermentation and Ageing 287
Antonio Morata and José A. Suárez-Lepe

17.1 The Return of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts to Oenology 287

17.2 Influence of Yeasts on Wine Ageing 295

17.2.1 Emerging Technologies for Controlling Microorganisms in Grapes and Wines 295

17.2.2 Systems Biology and Metabolomics in the Selection of S. cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Strains for Wine Production 295

17.2.3 Biogenic Amine Production by S. cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: Detection and Control Methods 296

17.2.4 Use of Non-Traditional Fining Agents and their Impact on Wine Attributes 296

17.3 Future Possibilities 296

17.4 Conclusions 297

References 297

18 Yeast Biotechnology 303
Julie Kellershohn and Inge Russell

18.1 The Market for Yeast and Yeast Products 303

18.2 The Baking Industry 303

18.3 Brewing and Distilling Yeast Developments 304

18.4 Sake Yeast Developments 305

18.5 Wine Production and the Creation of Engineered Malolactic Yeast (ML01) 305

18.6 Food Yeast 305

18.6.1 Mineral-Enriched Yeast 305

18.6.2 Yeast Byproducts 306

18.7 Soy Sauce Fermentation 306

18.8 Chymosin for Cheese Production 306

18.9 Flavour Compounds Produced Using Yeast 307

18.10 Carotenoids from Yeast 307

18.11 Saccharomyces Yeast in Non-Food Developments 307

18.12 The Synthetic Yeast Project 307

18.13 The Future 308

References 308

IV FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND NUTRACEUTICALS: NUTRITION, HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS 311

19 Bioencapsulation Technologies for Incorporating Bioactive Components into Functional Foods 313
Kasipathy Kailasapathy

19.1 Health and Functional Foods 313

19.2 Need for Encapsulation 313

19.3 Bioencapsulation Techniques for Administration and Delivery of Bioactive Components 314

19.3.1 Encapsulates 314

19.3.2 Structured Delivery Systems 314

19.3.3 Encapsulation Techniques 315

19.4 Applications: Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Biofunctional Ingredients in Functional Foods: Selected Examples 320

19.4.1 Fish Oils 320

19.4.2 Anti-Oxidants, Pigments and Vitamins 321

19.4.3 Bioactive Oils 325

19.4.4 Antimicrobial Bioactive Agents 326

19.5 Conclusion and Future Trends 328

References 329

20 Gut Microbiota and Polyphenols: A Strict Connection Enhancing Human Health 335
Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, and Antonio d’Acierno

20.1 State of the Art 335

20.2 Polyphenols 337

20.2.1 Flavonols 337

20.2.2 Flavanones 338

20.2.3 Flavan-3-ols and Procyanidins 338

20.2.4 Isoflavones 339

20.2.5 Non-Flavonoid Phenolics 339

20.2.6 Lignans 339

20.2.7 Hydroxycinnamates 339

20.2.8 Stilbenes 340

20.2.9 Benzoic Acids, Benzoates and Benzoic Acid Esters 340

20.3 Gut Metabotypes and Polyphenols 340

20.4 Influence of Phenolic Compounds on Microbiota Composition 343

20.5 Interaction between Specific Probiotics, Microbiota and Vegetal Sources 344

20.6 Conclusions 345

References 345

21 Improving Probiotics for Functional Foods 351
Lorena Ruiz, Miguel Gueimonde, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Abelardo Margolles, and Borja Sánchez

21.1 Introduction 351

21.2 Technological Factors 352

21.2.1 Strain Production Conditions, Freezing and Drying 352

21.2.2 Food Manufacturing Conditions and Final Product Composition 352

21.2.3 Food Matrix Components and Other Microorganisms 353

21.3 Physiological Factors 353

21.3.1 Acid pH 353

21.3.2 Intestinal Enzymes 354

21.3.3 Bile 354

21.4 Improving Probiotic Strains I: Strain Selection 354

21.5 Improving Probiotic Strains II: Stress Adaptation 355

21.6 Improving Probiotic Strains III: Strain Production and Food Design 357

21.6.1 Strain Production 357

21.6.2 Food Design 359

21.7 Improving Probiotic Strains IV: Gene Modification 360

21.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 361

Acknowledgements 362

References 362

22 Production of Single-Cell Oil Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids 369
Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Paliz Koohy-Kamaly, Houshang Nikoopour, and Seyedeh Zeinab Asadi

22.1 Introduction 369

22.2 Biochemistry of SCO 370

22.3 Microorganisms Producing SCO 370

22.3.1 Mortierella and M. Alpina 370

22.4 Systems of Cultivation 371

22.4.1 Solid-State Fermentation for SCO Production 371

22.4.2 Submerged Fermentation Systems for SCO Production 373

22.5 Commercial Production of SCO 373

22.5.1 Commercial Production of ARA-Rich SCO 373

22.5.2 Commercial Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich SCO 374

22.6 Recovery and Purification of PUFA from SCO 375

22.6.1 Safety of PUFA Consumption 375

22.6.2 Microencapsulation of PUFA 375

22.6.3 Metabolic Engineering of PUFA Production 376

22.7 Conclusion 376

References 377

23 Biotechnological Production of Oligosaccharides: Advances and Challenges 381
Diana B. Muñiz-Márquez, Juan C. Contreras, Raúl Rodríguez, Solange I. Mussatto, José A. Teixeira, and Cristóbal N. Aguilar

23.1 Introduction 381

23.2 Beneficial Effects of Oligosaccharides 381

23.2.1 Stimulating Effect on Activity of Probiotic Microorganisms 382

23.2.2 Cancer Prevention or Therapy 382

23.2.3 Decreased Levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides 383

23.3 Types of Oligosaccharides 383

23.3.1 Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) 383

23.3.2 Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) 384

23.3.3 Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) 384

23.3.4 Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOS) 385

23.3.5 Inulins 385

23.3.6 Pectic Oligosaccharides (POS) 385

23.4 Other Enzymes used for the Biosynthesis of Oligosaccharides 385

23.4.1 Glycosidases (GH) 385

23.4.2 Glycosyltransferases (GTs) 386

23.5 Microbial Production of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides 386

23.6 Yeast Strains used in Galactooligosaccharide Production from Lactose 386

23.7 Analysis of Oligosaccharides 386

23.7.1 Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) 386

23.7.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 387

23.7.3 Gas Chromatography (GC) 387

23.7.4 Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) 387

23.7.5 MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis 387

23.8 New Approaches for Purification of Oligosaccharides 387

23.8.1 Gel Chromatography 387

23.8.2 Ethanol Precipitation 387

23.8.3 Membrane-Based Techniques 387

23.8.4 Nanofiltration 388

23.8.5 Electrofiltration 388

23.8.6 Ultrafiltration 388

23.9 Emerging Trends in the Production of Novel Oligosaccharides 388

23.9.1 Gentiooligosaccharides (GeOS) 388

23.9.2 Glucooligosaccharides (GluOS) 388

23.10 Concluding Remarks 388

Acknowledgements 388

References 388

V VALORIZATION OF FOOD WASTE USING BIOTECHNOLOGY 393

24 Biotechnological Exploitation of Brewery Solid Wastes for Recovery or Production of Value-Added Products 395
Argyro Bekatorou, Stavros Plessas, and Ioanna Mantzourani

24.1 Introduction 395

24.2 Generation and Physicochemical Characteristics of Brewery Solid Wastes 397

24.3 Value-Added Bio-Products from Brewery Solid Wastes 399

24.3.1 SCP and Enriched Animal Feeds 399

24.3.2 Functional Food Ingredients 400

24.3.3 Multi-Purpose Yeast Extracts 405

24.3.4 Organic Acids 406

24.3.5 Microbial Polymers 407

24.3.6 Biosorbent Materials 407

24.3.7 Immobilized Cell Biocatalysts 408

24.4 Conclusions 408

References 409

25 Value-Added Utilization of Agro-Industrial Residues 415
Sigrid Kusch, Chibuike C. Udenigwe, Cristina Cavinato, Marco Gottardo, and Federico Micolucci

25.1 Introduction 415

25.2 Occurrence and Characteristics of Food Waste 417

25.2.1 Categories and Scales of Agro-Industrial Byproducts 417

25.2.2 Main Material Characteristics and Key Constituents, and Effects on Possible Valorization 418

25.3 Current and Emerging Food Waste Valorization Strategies 419

25.3.1 First-Generation Valorization Options 419

25.3.2 Second-Generation Valorization of Agro-Industrial Residues 421

25.4 A Spotlight on Functional Foods 421

25.4.1 From Byproducts to Functional Ingredients 421

25.4.2 Functional Components of Food Byproducts 422

25.4.3 Prospects and Challenges of using Food Byproducts as Functional Foods 423

25.5 Concluding Remarks 424

References 424

26 Cascaded Valorization of Food Waste using Bioconversions as Core Processes 427
Linsey Garcia-Gonzalez, Sebastiaan Bijttebier, Stefan Voorspoels, Maarten Uyttebroek, Kathy Elst, Winnie Dejonghe, Yamini Satyawali, Deepak Pant, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, and Heleen De Wever

26.1 Food Waste: Tomorrow’s Raw Materials? 427

26.2 Characterization of Biomass on a Molecular Level 428

26.3 Extraction of High-Value Compounds 430

26.4 Bioconversions of Food Waste using Enzyme Technology 431

26.5 Bioconversions of Food Waste using Fermentation Technology 433

26.6 Electricity Generation using Microbial Fuel Cells 434

26.7 Conclusions 436

Acknowledgements 436

References 437

27 Potential of Fruits Processing Wastes for Fungal Production of Multi-Enzymes Complexes 443
A.B. Díaz, I. Caro, I. de Ory, and A. Blandino

27.1 Food Processing Wastes as Substrates for SSF 443

27.2 Hydrolytic Enzymes Production from Fruit-Processing Wastes 445

27.3 SSF on Fruit-Processing Wastes in Bioreactors 447

27.4 Application of Hydrolytic Multi-Enzyme Complexes 449

27.5 Use of Enzyme Immobilization Strategies 450

27.6 Conclusions 451

References 451

VI FOOD SAFETY: DETECTION AND CONTROL OF FOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS 455

28 Emergent Strategies for Detection and Control of Biofilms in Food Processing Environments 457
Heidy M.W. den Besten, Yichen Ding, Tjakko Abee, and Liang Yang

28.1 Introduction 457

28.2 Biofilm-Associated Problems in Food Processing Environments 457

28.3 Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Major Food Pathogens 457

28.4 Mechanisms of Biofilm Resistance 460

28.4.1 Resistance Mechanisms of Monospecies Biofilms 460

28.4.2 Resistance Mechanisms of Multiple Species Biofilms 461

28.5 Novel Approaches for Biofilm Detection 461

28.5.1 Diagnosis of VBNC Biofilm Cells 461

28.5.2 Real-Time Biofilm Monitoring Tools 462

28.6 Biofilm Control Strategies in Food Industry 462

28.6.1 Antifouling Surface Coatings 462

28.6.2 Cleaning and Disinfectant Treatment 463

28.6.3 Phage Treatment 464

28.6.4 Interference of Cell-to-Cell Communications 465

28.6.5 Biofilm dispersal 466

28.7 Conclusions 466

Acknowledgements 466

References 466

29 Molecular Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Food-Borne Pathogens 471
Gulam Rusul and Li-Oon Chuah

29.1 Introduction 471

29.2 Molecular Detection and Identification of Food-Borne Pathogens 472

29.2.1 Nucleic Acid Hybridization 472

29.2.2 Polymerase Chain Amplification 475

29.2.3 Sequencing-Based Identification Methods 479

29.2.4 Non-Nucleic Acid-Based Methods 482

29.2.5 Single-Cell Analysis 482

29.3 Molecular Typing Techniques 483

29.3.1 Ribotyping 483

29.3.2 Restriction Enzyme Analysis (REA) 484

29.3.3 PCR-Based Typing Methods 484

29.3.4 DNA Sequencing-Based Typing Methods 486

29.4 Criteria to Consider when Choosing a Method 486

29.5 Sample Preparation for the Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens 487

29.6 Conclusions 487

References 488

30 Non-Thermal Food Preservation: Control of Food-Borne Pathogens through Active Food Packaging and Nanotechnology 499
Paula Judith Perez Espitia and Rejane Andrade Batista

30.1 Introduction 499

30.2 Polymeric Matrixes and Methods of Food Packaging 500

30.2.1 Casting Method 501

30.2.2 Extrusion 502

30.3 Controlling Food-Borne Pathogens through Active Food Packaging 504

30.4 Nanotechnology for Antimicrobial Food Packaging 506

30.5 Safety Issues 506

Acknowledgements 508

References 508

31 Strategies for Advantageous Antimicrobial Activity by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria: Higher Yield, Enhanced Activity and Successful Application in Foods 511
Myrto-Panagiota Zacharof

31.1 Introduction 511

31.2 Bacteriocin Uses and Demands of a Knowledge-Driven Economy 511

31.3 Strategies for Advantageous Production of Bacteriocins 512

31.3.1 Physicochemical Conditions Optimization 512

31.3.2 Recovery Strategies Development 515

31.4 Synergistic Action of Bacteriocins for Enhanced Activity 517

31.4.1 Physical Means of Treatment 517

31.4.2 Chemicals Means of Treatment 517

31.5 Application of Bacteriocins in Foods: Examples and Case Studies 519

31.6 Conclusions 521

References 521

32 The Role of Phages in Food-Borne Pathogen Detection 527
Eoghan Nevin, Aidan Coffey, and Jim O’Mahony

32.1 Introduction 527

32.2 Methods of Phage Detection 527

32.2.1 Reporter Phage Systems 527

32.2.2 Indicator Phage Systems 529

32.2.3 Phage-Based Biosensors 529

32.3 Food-Borne Pathogens Detected by Phage Assays 530

32.3.1 E. coli O157 530

32.3.2 Listeria Monocytogenes 531

32.3.3 Norovirus 532

32.4 Surface Plasmon Resonance and Phages 533

32.5 Practicalities of Future Phage Use 533

32.5.1 Advantages and Drawbacks of Phage-Based Detection 533

32.5.2 The Future of Phage-Based Detection 534

Acknowledgements 535

References 535

VII EMERGING TECHNIQUES IN FOOD PROCESSING 539

33 Applications of Micro- and Nanofluidics in the Food Industry 541
Fabrizio Sarghini

33.1 Introduction 541

33.2 Physical Bases of Microfluidics 542

33.2.1 Drops in Microfluidic Devices 542

33.2.2 Electrokinetics 544

33.3 Applications 545

33.3.1 Microfluidics for Food Safety and Analysis 546

33.3.2 Microencapsulation, Food Emulsions and Active Compounds Controlled Release 546

33.4 Basic Microfluidic Devices for Food Analysis and Food Processing 548

33.4.1 Micropumps 548

33.4.2 Micromixers 549

33.4.3 Microvalves 551

33.4.4 Detection Systems 551

33.4.5 Devices for Droplet and Microcapsule Generation 552

33.5 Perspectives and Challenges 559

References 560

34 Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Decontamination of Foods 565
N.N. Misra, Annalisa Segat, and P.J. Cullen

34.1 Introduction 565

34.2 NTP Fundamentals 566

34.2.1 Plasma Physics and Chemistry 566

34.2.2 Plasma Sources 567

34.3 Plasma–Microbiological Interactions 568

34.4 Plasma–Food Interactions 569

34.4.1 Plant-Based Foods 569

34.4.2 Animal-Based Foods 570

34.5 Challenges in NTP Processing of Foods 571

34.6 Conclusions and Future Trends 572

34.7 Acknowledgement 572

References 572

35 Electrochemical Processes During High-Voltage Electric Pulses and their Importance in Food Processing Technology 575
Gintautas Saulis, Raminta Rodaitė-Riševičienė, Viktorija SkaidrutėDainauskaitė, and Rita Saulė

35.1 Introduction 575

35.2 Theoretical Background 576

35.2.1 Primary Cathodic Half-Reactions 576

35.2.2 Primary Anodic Half-Reactions 576

35.2.3 Secondary Chemical Reactions 577

35.3 Consequences of Electrochemical Processes 578

35.3.1 Gas Evolution 578

35.3.2 Reduction of Cell Viability 578

35.3.3 pH Changes 579

35.3.4 Release of the Metal Ions from the Electrode 582

35.3.5 Influence of Metal Ions on the Biochemical Reactions 583

35.3.6 ROS Generation 583

35.3.7 Complexation of Metal Ions Released with Molecules Present in the Solution 584

35.3.8 Conductivity Changes 585

35.3.9 Increase in the Roughness of the Electrode Surface 585

35.3.10 Quenching of Fluorescence 585

35.4 Methods of Reducing Electrochemical Reaction Intensity and Reaction Consequences 586

35.5 Conclusion 587

Acknowledgements 587

References 587

36 Microencapsulation in Food Biotechnology by a Spray-Drying Process 593
Berta N. Estevinho and Fernando Rocha

36.1 Introduction 593

36.2 Microencapsulation in Food Biotechnology 594

36.2.1 Probiotics 594

36.2.2 Flavours 595

36.2.3 Lipids 596

36.2.4 Anti-Oxidants 596

36.2.5 Vitamins 597

36.2.6 Enzymes 597

36.2.7 Dyes 598

36.2.8 Stabilizers 598

36.2.9 Summary 598

36.3 Microencapsulation Concepts 599

36.3.1 Encapsulating Agents 599

36.3.2 Microencapsulation Techniques 599

36.4 Spray-Drying Process 600

36.5 Kinetic Mechanisms of Controlled Release 602

36.6 Conclusions 603

Acknowledgements 603

References 603

37 Nanofibre Encapsulation of Active Ingredients and their Controlled Release 607
Filiz Altay and Nagihan Okutan

37.1 Introduction 607

37.2 Encapsulation by Electrospinning 609

37.3 Applications of Electrospun Nanofibre-Encapsulated Ingredients 611

37.4 Controlled Release from Nanofibres 611

37.5 Conclusion and Future Trends 614

Acknowledgements 614

References 614

38 Applications of Nanobiotechnology in the Food Industry 617
Jamuna Bai Aswathanarayan and Ravishankar Rai V.

38.1 Introduction 617

38.2 Nanobiotechnology in Food Packaging: Improved, Intelligent and Active Packaging 618

38.2.1 Improved Food Packaging 619

38.2.2 Active Packaging 620

38.2.3 Intelligent Packaging 622

38.2.4 Nanocoatings in Food Packaging 622

38.3 Nanotechnology for Delivery of Bioactives and Nutraceuticals 623

38.3.1 Nanoencapsulation Methods 623

38.3.2 Application of Nanoencapsulation Techniques in Food Processing 623

38.4 Nanobiosensors: Detection of Food-Relevant Analytes 625

38.4.1 Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens 626

38.4.2 Detection of Contaminants 628

38.4.3 Detection of Allergens 628

38.4.4 Predicting Shelf Life 629

38.4.5 Food Traceability 629

38.5 Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Nanotechnology Applications 630

38.6 Conclusion 630

References 630

39 Recent Advances in and Applications of Encapsulated Microbial and Non-Microbial Active Agents in Food and Beverage Manufacture 635
Viktor Nedovic,ì Branko Bugarski, Fani Mantzouridou, Adamantini Paraskevopoulou, Eleni Naziri, Thomas Koupantsis, Kata Trifkovic ì, Ivana Drvenica, Bojana Balanč, and Verica Ðord̵evic ì

39.1 Introduction 635

39.2 Microbial Food Culture Encapsulation as a Biotechnological Process Tool 636

39.3 Encapsulation for Enhanced In Vivo Bioactive Compound Bioavailability and Improved Aroma 637

39.4 Food-Specific Materials and Methods/Techniques for Encapsulation 642

39.4.1 Proteins as Materials for Encapsulation 642

39.4.2 Lipids as Materials for Encapsulation 644

39.4.3 Carbohydrates as Materials for Encapsulation 646

39.4.4 Other Materials for Encapsulation/Immobilization 648

39.5 Examples of Encapsulated Cell Technology in Fermentation Processes 649

39.5.1 Beer Fermentation 649

39.5.2 Wine Fermentation 651

39.5.3 Cider Fermentation 654

39.5.4 Dairy Fermentation 654

39.5.5 Meat Fermentation 655

39.6 Examples of Immobilized Cell Technology in Microbial Production of High-Value Food Ingredients 655

39.6.1 Production of Vitamins 656

39.6.2 Production of Carotenoids 657

39.6.3 Production of Organic Acids 657

39.6.4 Production of Amino Acids 659

39.7 Examples of Encapsulated Cells/Bioactives in Production of Functional Food Products 659

39.7.1 Yogurt 659

39.7.2 Cheese 660

39.7.3 Ice Cream 660

39.7.4 Other Products 660

39.7.5 Commercial Products 661

39.8 Trends in Encapsulation 661

39.8.1 Co-Encapsulating Different Core Materials 661

39.8.2 Case Studies 664

39.9 Future Perspectives 665

Acknowledgements 665

References 666

40 Thermal Processing of Food 681
S. K. Pankaj

40.1 Introduction 681

40.1.1 Canning Operations 681

40.1.2 Thermobacteriology Terms 682

40.2 Cooking Criteria 684

40.3 Retorts 684

40.4 Control Systems 685

40.4.1 Temperature Measurement 685

40.4.2 Pressure Measurement 686

40.5 Process Evaluation 687

40.5.1 Determination of Target Microbe in the Product 687

40.5.2 Determining the Uniformity of Thermal Cycle in the Retorts 687

40.5.3 Determination of Heat Transfer in the Product 687

40.5.4 Theoretical Process 688

40.5.5 Validation of Theoretical Process 688

40.6 On-Line Retort Control 689

40.7 Novel Technologies 689

40.7.1 Radio-Frequency Heating 689

40.7.2 Microwave Heating 690

40.7.3 Infrared Heating 690

40.7.4 Ohmic Heating 691

40.8 Future Trends 691

References 692

Index 693