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Advances in Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation and Testing

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Advances in Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation and Testing

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A new and updated definitive resource for survey questionnaire testing and evaluation

Building on the success of the first Questionnaire Development, Evaluation, and Testing (QDET) conference in 2002, this book brings together leading papers from the Second International Conference on Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation, and Testing (QDET2) held in 2016.  The volume assesses the current state of the art and science of QDET; examines the importance of methodological attention to the questionnaire in the present world of information collection; and ponders how the QDET field can anticipate new trends and directions as information needs and data collection methods continue to evolve.

Featuring contributions from international experts in survey methodology, Advances in Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation and Testing includes latest insights on question characteristics, usability testing, web probing, and other pretesting approaches, as well as:   

  • Recent developments in the design and evaluation of digital and self-administered surveys
  • Strategies for comparing and combining questionnaire evaluation methods
  • Approaches for cross-cultural and cross-national questionnaire development
  • New data sources and methodological innovations during the last 15 years
  • Case studies and practical applications

Advances in Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation and Testing serves as a forum to prepare researchers to meet the next generation of challenges, making it an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in government, academia, and the private sector. 

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxiii

Part I Assessing the Current Methodology for Questionnaire Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation 1

1 Questionnaire Design, Development, Evaluation, and Testing: Where are We, and Where are We Headed? 3
Gordon B. Willis

1.1 Current State of the Art and Science of QDET 3

1.2 Relevance of QDET in the Evolving World of Surveys 11

1.3 Looking Ahead: Further Developments in QDET 16

1.4 Conclusion 19

References 20

2 Asking the Right Questions in the Right Way: Six Needed Changes in Questionnaire Evaluation and Testing Methods 25
Don A. Dillman

2.1 Personal Experiences with Cognitive Interviews and Focus Groups 25

2.2 My 2002 Experience at QDET 29

2.3 Six Changes in Survey Research that Require New Perspectives on Questionnaire Evaluation and Testing 33

2.4 Conclusion 42

References 43

3 A Framework for Making Decisions about Question Evaluation Methods 47
Roger Tourangeau, Aaron Maitland, Darby Steiger, and Ting Yan

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Expert Reviews 48

3.3 Laboratory Methods 51

3.4 Field Methods 55

3.5 Statistical Modeling for Data Quality 59

3.6 Comparing Different Methods 63

3.7 Recommendations 67

References 69

4 A Comparison of Five Question Evaluation Methods in Predicting the Validity of Respondent Answers to Factual Items 75
Aaron Maitland and Stanley Presser

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Methods 76

4.3 Results 79

4.4 Discussion 84

References 85

5 Combining Multiple Question Evaluation Methods: What Does tt Mean When the Data Appear to Conflict? 91
Jo d’Ardenne and Debbie Collins

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Questionnaire Development Stages 92

5.3 Selection of Case Studies 93

5.4 Case Study 1: Conflicting Findings Between Focus Groups and Cognitive Interviews 95

5.5 Case Study 2: Conflicting Findings Between Eye-Tracking, Respondent Debriefing Questions, and Interviewer Feedback 97

5.6 Case Study 3: Complementary Findings Between Cognitive Interviews and Interviewer Feedback 100

5.7 Case Study 4: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Data to Assess Changes to a Travel Diary 104

5.8 Framework of QT Methods 110

5.9 Summary and Discussion 110

References 114

Part II Question Characteristics, Response Burden, and Data Quality 117

6 The Role of Question Characteristics in Designing and Evaluating Survey Questions 119
Jennifer Dykema, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Dana Garbarski, and Michael Hout

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Overview of Some of the Approaches Used to Conceptualize, Measure, and Code Question Characteristics 120

6.3 Taxonomy of Question Characteristics 127

6.4 Case Studies 132

6.5 Discussion 141

Acknowledgments 147

References 148

7 Exploring the Associations Between Question Characteristics, Respondent Characteristics, Interviewer Performance Measures, and Survey Data Quality 153
James M. Dahlhamer, Aaron Maitland, Heather Ridolfo, Antuane Allen, and Dynesha Brooks

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Methods 157

7.3 Results 174

7.4 Discussion 182

Disclaimer 191

References 191

8 Response Burden: What is it and What Predicts It? 193
Ting Yan, Scott Fricker, and Shirley Tsai

8.1 Introduction 193

8.2 Methods 197

8.3 Results 202

8.4 Conclusions and Discussion 206

Acknowledgments 210

References 210

9 The Salience of Survey Burden and Its Effect on Response Behavior to Skip Questions: Experimental Results from Telephone and Web Surveys 213
Frauke Kreuter, Stephanie Eckman, and Roger Tourangeau

9.1 Introduction 213

9.2 Study Designs and Methods 216

9.3 Manipulating the Interleafed Format 219

9.4 Discussion and Conclusion 224

Acknowledgments 226

References 227

10 A Comparison of Fully Labeled and Top-Labeled Grid Question Formats 229
Jolene D. Smyth and Kristen Olson

10.1 Introduction 229

10.2 Data and Methods 236

10.3 Findings 243

10.4 Discussion and Conclusions 253

Acknowledgments 254

References 255

11 The Effects of Task Difficulty and Conversational Cueing on Answer Formatting Problems in Surveys 259
Yfke Ongena and Sanne Unger

11.1 Introduction 259

11.2 Factors Contributing to Respondents’ Formatting Problems 262

11.3 Hypotheses 267

11.4 Method and Data 268

11.5 Results 275

11.6 Discussion and Conclusion 278

11.7 Further Expansion of the Current Study 281

11.8 Conclusions 282

References 283

Part III Improving Questionnaires on the Web and Mobile Devices 287

12 A Compendium of Web and Mobile Survey Pretesting Methods 289
Emily Geisen and Joe Murphy

12.1 Introduction 289

12.2 Review of Traditional Pretesting Methods 290

12.3 Emerging Pretesting Methods 294

References 308

13 Usability Testing Online Questionnaires: Experiences at the U.S. Census Bureau 315
Elizabeth Nichols, Erica Olmsted-Hawala, Temika Holland, and Amy Anderson Riemer

13.1 Introduction 315

13.2 History of Usability Testing Self-Administered Surveys at the US Census Bureau 316

13.3 Current Usability Practices at the Census Bureau 317

13.4 Participants: “Real Users, Not User Stories” 320

13.5 Building Usability Testing into the Development Life Cycle 323

13.6 Measuring Accuracy 327

13.7 Measuring Efficiency 331

13.8 Measuring Satisfaction 335

13.9 Retrospective Probing and Debriefing 337

13.10 Communicating Findings with the Development Team 339

13.11 Assessing Whether Usability Test Recommendations Worked 340

13.12 Conclusions 341

References 341

14 How Mobile Device Screen Size Affects Data Collected in Web Surveys 349
Daniele Toninelli and Melanie Revilla

14.1 Introduction 349

14.2 Literature Review 350

14.3 Our Contribution and Hypotheses 352

14.4 Data Collection and Method 355

14.5 Main Results 361

14.6 Discussion 368

Acknowledgments 369

References 370

15 Optimizing Grid Questions for Smartphones: A Comparison of Optimized and Non-Optimized Designs and Effects on Data Quality on Different Devices 375
Trine Dale and Heidi Walsoe

15.1 Introduction 375

15.2 The Need for Change in Questionnaire Design Practices 376

15.3 Contribution and Research Questions 378

15.4 Data Collection and Methodology 380

15.5 Main Results 386

15.6 Discussion 392

Acknowledgments 397

References 397

16 Learning from Mouse Movements: Improving Questionnaires and Respondents’ User Experience Through Passive Data Collection 403
Rachel Horwitz, Sarah Brockhaus, Felix Henninger, Pascal J. Kieslich, Malte Schierholz, Florian Keusch, and Frauke Kreuter

16.1 Introduction 403

16.2 Background 404

16.3 Data 409

16.4 Methodology 410

16.5 Results 415

16.6 Discussion 420

References 423

17 Using Targeted Embedded Probes to Quantify Cognitive Interviewing Findings 427
Paul Scanlon

17.1 Introduction 427

17.2 The NCHS Research and Development Survey 431

17.3 Findings 433

17.4 Discussion 445

References 448

18 The Practice of Cognitive Interviewing Through Web Probing 451
Stephanie Fowler and Gordon B. Willis

18.1 Introduction 451

18.2 Methodological Issues in the Use of Web Probing for Pretesting 452

18.3 Testing the Effect of Probe Placement 453

18.4 Analyses of Responses to Web Probes 455

18.5 Qualitative Analysis of Responses to Probes 459

18.6 Qualitative Coding of Responses 459

18.7 Current State of the Use of Web Probes 462

18.8 Limitations 465

18.9 Recommendations for the Application and Further Evaluation of Web Probes 466

18.10 Conclusion 468

Acknowledgments 468

References 468

Part IV Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Questionnaire Design and Evaluation 471

19 Optimizing Questionnaire Design in Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Surveys 473
Tom W. Smith

19.1 Introduction 473

19.2 The Total Survey Error Paradigm and Comparison Error 474

19.3 Cross-Cultural Survey Guidelines and Resources 477

19.4 Translation 478

19.5 Developing Comparative Scales 480

19.6 Focus Groups and Pretesting in Cross-National/Cultural Surveys 483

19.7 Tools for Developing and Managing Cross-National Surveys 484

19.8 Resources for Developing and Testing Cross-National Measures 485

19.9 Pre- and Post-Harmonization 486

19.10 Conclusion 488

References 488

20 A Model for Cross-National Questionnaire Design and Pretesting 493
Rory Fitzgerald and Diana Zavala-Rojas

20.1 Introduction 493

20.2 Background 493

20.3 The European Social Survey 495

20.4 ESS Questionnaire Design Approach 496

20.5 Critique of the Seven-Stage Approach 497

20.6 A Model for Cross-National Questionnaire Design and Pretesting 497

20.7 Evaluation of the Model for Cross-National Questionnaire Design and Pretesting Using the Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) 501

20.8 Conclusions 512

References 514

21 Cross-National Web Probing: An Overview of Its Methodology and Its Use in Cross-National Studies 521
Dorothée Behr, Katharina Meitinger, Michael Braun, and Lars Kaczmirek

21.1 Introduction 521

21.2 Cross-National Web Probing – Its Goal, Strengths, and Weaknesses 523

21.3 Access to Respondents Across Countries: The Example of Online Access Panels and Probability-Based Panels 526

21.4 Implementation of Standardized Probes 527

21.5 Translation and Coding Answers to Cross-Cultural Probes 532

21.6 Substantive Results 533

21.7 Cross-National Web Probing and Its Application Throughout the Survey Life Cycle 536

21.8 Conclusions and Outlook 538

Acknowledgments 539

References 539

22 Measuring Disability Equality in Europe: Design and Development of the European Health and Social Integration Survey Questionnaire 545
Amanda Wilmot

22.1 Introduction 545

22.2 Background 546

22.3 Questionnaire Design 548

22.4 Questionnaire Development and Testing 553

22.5 Survey Implementation 560

22.6 Lessons Learned 563

22.7 Final Reflections 566

Acknowledgments 567

References 567

Part V Extensions and Applications 571

23 Regression-Based Response Probing for Assessing the Validity of Survey Questions 573
Patrick Sturgis, Ian Brunton-Smith, and Jonathan Jackson

23.1 Introduction 573

23.2 Cognitive Methods for Assessing Question Validity 574

23.3 Regression-Based Response Probing 577

23.4 Example 1: Generalized Trust 579

23.5 Example 2: Fear of Crime 580

23.6 Data 581

23.7 Discussion 586

References 588

24 The Interplay Between Survey Research and Psychometrics, with a Focus on Validity Theory 593
Bruno D. Zumbo and José-Luis Padilla

24.1 Introduction 593

24.2 An Over-the-Shoulder Look Back at Validity Theory and Validation Practices with an Eye toward Describing Contemporary Validity Theories 595

24.3 An Approach to Validity that Bridges Psychometrics and Survey Design 602

24.4 Closing Remarks 606

References 608

25 Quality-Driven Approaches for Managing Complex Cognitive Testing Projects 613
Martha Stapleton, Darby Steiger, and Mary C. Davis

25.1 Introduction 613

25.2 Characteristics of the Four Cognitive Testing Projects 614

25.3 Identifying Detailed, Quality-Driven Management Approaches for Qualitative Research 615

25.4 Identifying Principles for Developing Quality-Driven Management Approaches 616

25.5 Applying the Concepts of Transparency and Consistency 617

25.6 The 13 Quality-Driven Management Approaches 618

25.7 Discussion and Conclusion 632

References 634

26 Using Iterative, Small-Scale Quantitative and Qualitative Studies: A Review of 15 Years of Research to Redesign a Major US Federal Government Survey 639
Joanne Pascale

26.1 Introduction 639

26.2 Measurement Issues in Health Insurance 641

26.3 Methods and Results 645

26.4 Discussion 660

26.5 Final Reflections 663

References 664

27 Contrasting Stylized Questions of Sleep with Diary Measures from the American Time Use Survey 671
Robin L. Kaplan, Brandon Kopp, and Polly Phipps

27.1 Introduction 671

27.2 The Sleep Gap 672

27.3 The Present Research 674

27.4 Study 1: Behavior Coding 675

27.5 Study 2: Cognitive Interviews 678

27.6 Study 3: Quantitative Study 682

27.7 Study 4: Validation Study 686

27.8 General Discussion 689

27.9 Implications and Future Directions 692

References 692

28 Questionnaire Design Issues in Mail Surveys of All Adults in a Household 697
Douglas Williams, J. Michael Brick, W. Sherman Edwards, and Pamela Giambo

28.1 Introduction 697

28.2 Background 698

28.3 The NCVS and Mail Survey Design Challenges 699

28.4 Field Test Methods and Design 704

28.5 Outcome Measures 706

28.6 Findings 708

28.7 Summary 716

28.8 Discussion 716

28.9 Conclusion 719

References 720

29 Planning Your Multimethod Questionnaire Testing Bento Box: Complementary Methods for a Well-Balanced Test 723
Jaki S. McCarthy

29.1 Introduction 723

29.2 A Questionnaire Testing Bento Box 725

29.3 Examples from the Census of Agriculture Questionnaire Testing Bento Box 733

29.4 Conclusion 743

References 744

30 Flexible Pretesting on a Tight Budget: Using Multiple Dependent Methods to Maximize Effort-Return Trade-Offs 749
Matt Jans, Jody L. Herman, Joseph Viana, David Grant, Royce Park, Bianca D.M. Wilson, Jane Tom, Nicole Lordi, and Sue Holtby

30.1 Introduction 749

30.2 Evolution of a Dependent Pretesting Approach for Gender Identity Measurement 752

30.3 Analyzing and Synthesizing Results 759

30.4 Discussion 764

Acknowledgments 766

References 766

Index 769