Surveys are a fundamental mode of research across all the social science. This volume focuses on recent lines of theory and research related to survey design, implementation, analysis, and interpretation. The chapters address a variety of methodologically oriented topics. including the types of survey error, cognitive research on survey responding, response effects due to survey mode differences, theories pertinent to survey nonresponse, Rasch applications to survey data quality, and issues of questionnaire translation. The volume also includes an analysis of how surveys can be used to involve the public in program and policy evaluation. All survey modes--mail, telephone, and personal interview--are discussed. Our intent is to help evaluators imporve the quality of surveys they conduct and to stimulate evaluators to use surveys in new contexts. This is the 70th issue in the journal series New Directions for Evaluation.