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AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems

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$120.99

AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems

Behnam Kamali

ISBN: 978-1-119-28112-2 September 2018 480 Pages

Description

This is a pioneering textbook on the comprehensive description of AeroMACS technology. It also presents the process of developing a new technology based on an established standard, in this case IEEE802.16 standards suite.

The text introduces readers to the field of airport surface communications systems and provides them with comprehensive coverage of one the key components of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen); i.e., AeroMACS. It begins with a critical review of the legacy aeronautical communications system and a discussion of the impetus behind its replacement with network-centric digital technologies. It then describes wireless mobile channel characteristics in general, and focuses on the airport surface channel over the 5GHz band. This is followed by an extensive coverage of major features of IEEE 802.16-2009 Physical Layer (PHY)and Medium Access Control (MAC) Sublayer. The text then provides a comprehensive coverage of the AeroMACS standardization process, from technology selection to network deployment. AeroMACS is then explored as a short-range high-data-throughput broadband wireless communications system, with concentration on the AeroMACS PHY layer and MAC sublayer main features, followed by making a strong case in favor of the IEEE 802.16j Amendment as the foundational standard for AeroMACS networks.

AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems covers topics such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), coded OFDMA, scalable OFDMA, Adaptive Modulation-Coding (AMC), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, Error Control Coding (ECC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) techniques, Time Division Duplexing (TDD), Inter-Application Interference (IAI), and so on. It also looks at future trends and developments of AeroMACS networks as they are deployed across the world, focusing on concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity. In addition, this text: 

  • Discusses the challenges posed by complexities of airport radio channels as well as those pertaining to broadband transmissions
  • Examines physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer protocols and signal processing techniques of AeroMACS inherited from IEEE 802.16 standard and WiMAX networks
  • Compares AeroMACS and how it relates to IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based WiMAX

AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems will appeal to engineers and technical professionals involved in the research and development of AeroMACS, technical staffers of government agencies in aviation sectors, and graduate students interested in standard-based wireless networking analysis, design, and development.

Preface xvii

Acronyms xxv

1 Airport Communications from Analog AM to AeroMACS 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Conventional Aeronautical Communication Domains (Flight Domains) 2

1.3 VHF Spectrum Depletion 4

1.4 The ACAST Project 5

1.5 Early Digital Communication Technologies for Aeronautics 7

1.5.1 ACARS 7

1.5.2 VHF Data Link (VDL) Systems 8

1.5.2.1 Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) 8

1.5.2.2 VDL Systems 8

1.5.3 Overlay Broadband Alternatives for Data Transmission 10

1.5.3.1 Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum Overlay 11

1.5.3.2 Broadband VHF (B-VHF) 11

1.5.4 Controller–Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) 12

1.6 Selection of a Communications Technology for Aeronautics 14

1.7 The National Airspace System (NAS) 15

1.7.1 Flight Control 16

1.7.2 United States Civilian Airports 17

1.8 The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) 20

1.8.1 The NextGen Vision 22

1.8.2 NextGen Key Components and Functionalities 22

1.9 Auxiliary Wireless Communications Systems Available for the Airport Surface 25

1.9.1 Public Safety Mobile Radio for Airport Incidents 26

1.9.1.1 Public Safety Communications (PSC) Systems Architecture and Technologies 26

1.9.1.2 Public Safety Allocated Radio Spectrum 27

1.9.1.3 700 MHz Band and the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) 28

1.9.2 Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) Systems Applications for Airport Surface 30

1.10 Airport Wired Communications Systems 31

1.10.1 Airport Fiber-Optic Cable Loop System 34

1.10.2 Applications of CLCS in Airport Surface Communications and Navigation 35

1.11 Summary 36

References 36

2 Cellular Networking and Mobile Radio Channel Characterization 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 The Crux of the Cellular Concept 42

2.2.1 The “Precellular” Wireless Mobile Communications Systems 43

2.2.2 The Core of the Cellular Notion 45

2.2.3 Frequency Reuse and Radio Channel Multiplicity 48

2.2.3.1 Co-Channel Reuse Ratio (CCRR), Cluster Size, and Reuse Factor 49

2.2.3.2 Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio (SIR) 50

2.2.3.3 Channel Allocation 55

2.2.4 Erlang Traffic Theory and Cellular Network Design 57

2.2.4.1 Trunking, Erlang, and Traffic 58

2.2.4.2 The Grade of Service 60

2.2.4.3 Blocked Calls Handling Strategies 60

2.2.4.4 Trunking Efficiency 62

2.2.4.5 Capacity Enhancement through Cell Splitting 64

2.2.4.6 Capacity Enhancement via Sectorization 67

2.3 Cellular Radio Channel Characterization 69

2.3.1 Cellular Link Impairments 69

2.3.2 Path Loss Computation and Estimation 71

2.3.2.1 Free-Space Propagation and Friis Formula 73

2.3.2.2 The Key Mechanisms Affecting Radio Wave Propagation 74

2.3.2.3 The Ray Tracing Technique 76

2.3.2.4 Ground Reflection and Double-Ray Model 76

2.3.2.5 Empirical Techniques for Path Loss (Large-Scale Attenuation) Estimation 81

2.3.2.6 Okumura–Hata Model for Outdoor Median Path Loss Estimation 82

2.3.2.7 COST 231-Hata Model 84

2.3.2.8 Stanford University Interim (SUI) Model: Erceg Model 85

2.3.2.9 ECC-33 Model 86

2.3.3 Large-Scale Fading: Shadowing and Foliage 87

2.3.3.1 Log-Normal Shadowing 88

2.3.3.2 Estimation of Useful Coverage Area (UCA) within a Cell Footprint 91

2.3.4 Small-Scale Fading: Multipath Propagation and Doppler Effect 94

2.3.4.1 Multipath Propagation 95

2.3.4.2 Double Path Example 97

2.3.4.3 Doppler Shift 99

2.3.4.4 Impulse Response of Multipath Channels 100

2.3.4.5 Delay Spread and Fading Modes 102

2.3.4.6 Methods of Combating Frequency-Selective Fading 103

2.3.4.7 Coherence Bandwidth and Power Delay Profiles (PDPs) 105

2.3.4.8 Frequency Flat Fading versus Frequency-Selective Fading 108

2.3.4.9 Frequency Dispersion and Coherence Time 109

2.3.4.10 Classification of Multipath Fading Channels 110

2.3.4.11 Probabilistic Models for Frequency Flat Fading Channels 112

2.3.4.12 Rayleigh Fading Channels 112

2.3.4.13 Rician Fading Channels 115

2.4 Challenges of Broadband Transmission over the Airport Surface Channel 117

2.5 Summary 118

References 119

3 Wireless Channel Characterization for the 5 GHz Band Airport Surface Area 123

3.1 Introduction 123

3.1.1 Importance of Channel Characterization 123

3.1.2 Channel Definitions 125

3.1.3 Airport Surface Area Channel 127

3.2 Statistical Channel Characterization Overview 129

3.2.1 The Channel Impulse Response and Transfer Function 129

3.2.2 Statistical Channel Characteristics 130

3.2.3 Common Channel Parameters and Statistics 133

3.3 Channel Effects and Signaling 134

3.3.1 Small-Scale and Large-Scale Fading 134

3.3.2 Channel Parameters and Signaling Relations 135

3.4 Measured Airport Surface Area Channels 137

3.4.1 Measurement Description and Example Results 137

3.4.2 Path Loss Results 141

3.5 Airport Surface Area Channel Models 143

3.5.1 Large/Medium-Sized Airports 144

3.5.2 Small Airports 144

3.6 Summary 144

References 147

4 Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing and Multiple Access 151

4.1 Introduction 151

4.2 Fundamental Principles of OFDM Signaling 152

4.2.1 Parallel Transmission, Orthogonal Multiplexing, Guard Time, and Cyclic Extension 154

4.2.1.1 Cyclic Prefix and Guard Time 155

4.2.2 Fourier Transform-Based OFDM Signal 156

4.2.3 Windowing, Filtering, and Formation of OFDM Signal 157

4.2.4 OFDM System Implementation 159

4.2.5 Choice of Modulation Schemes for OFDM 160

4.2.6 OFDM Systems Design: How the Key Parameters are Selected 161

4.3 Coded Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing: COFDM 161

4.3.1 Motivation 162

4.3.2 System-Level Functional Block Diagram of a Fourier-Based COFDM 162

4.3.3 Some Classical Applications of COFDM 164

4.3.3.1 COFDM Applied in Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) 164

4.3.3.2 COFDM Applied in Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi): The IEEE 802.11 Standard 165

4.4 Performance of Channel Coding in OFDM Networks 167

4.5 Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access: OFDMA 169

4.5.1 Multiple Access Technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, and OFDMA 171

4.5.2 Incentives behind Widespread Applications of OFDMA in Wireless Networks 175

4.5.3 Subchannelization and Symbol Structure 176

4.5.4 Permutation Modes for Configuration of Subchannels 178

4.5.4.1 The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Problem 179

4.6 Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) 179

4.6.1 How to Select the OFDMA Basic Parameters vis-à-vis Scalability 180

4.6.2 Options in Scaling 182

4.7 Summary 183

References 184

5 The IEEE 802.16 Standards and the WiMAX Technology 189

5.1 Introduction to the IEEE 802.16 Standards for Wireless MAN Networks 190

5.2 The Evolution and Characterization of IEEE 802.16 Standards 193

5.2.1 IEEE 802.16-2004 Standard 193

5.2.2 IEEE 802.16e-2005 Standard 194

5.2.3 IEEE 802.16-2009 Standard 194

5.2.4 IEEE 802.16j Amendment 194

5.2.5 The Structure of a WirelessMAN Cell 195

5.2.6 Protocol Reference Model (PRM) for the IEEE 802.16-2009 Standard 197

5.3 WiMAX: an IEEE 802.16-Based Technology 200

5.3.1 Basic Features of WiMAX Systems 200

5.3.2 WiMAX Physical Layer Characterization 204

5.3.2.1 OFDMA and SOFDMA for WiMAX 205

5.3.2.2 Comparison of Duplexing Technologies: TDD versus FDD 206

5.3.2.3 Subchannelization for Mobile WiMAX 207

5.3.2.4 WiMAX TDD Frame Structure 211

5.3.2.5 Adaptive (Advanced) Modulation and Coding (AMC) 215

5.3.2.6 ARQ and Hybrid ARQ: Multilayer Error Control Schemes 219

5.3.2.7 Multiple Antenna Techniques, MIMO, and Space-Time Coding 219

5.3.2.8 Fractional Frequency Reuse Techniques for Combating Intercell Interference and to Boost Spectral Efficiency 227

5.3.2.9 Power Control and Saving Modes in WiMAX Networks 230

5.3.3 WiMAX MAC Layer Description 231

5.3.3.1 WiMAX MAC CS; Connections and Service Flows 232

5.3.3.2 The MAC CPS Functionalities 232

5.3.3.3 WiMAX Security Sublayer 233

5.3.3.4 WiMAX MAC Frame and MAC Header Format 234

5.3.3.5 Quality of Service (QoS), Scheduling, and Bandwidth Allocation 235

5.3.4 WiMAX Forum and WiMAX Profiles 239

5.3.4.1 WiMAX System Profiles and Certification Profiles 240

5.3.4.2 WiMAX Mobile System Profiles 241

5.3.5 WiMAX Network Architecture 245

5.3.5.1 WiMAX Network Reference Model as Presented by WiMAX Forum 246

5.3.5.2 Characterization of Major Logical and Physical Components of WiMAX NRM 248

5.3.5.3 Visual Depiction of WiMAX NRM 250

5.3.5.4 The Description of WiMAX Reference Points 250

5.3.6 Mobility and Handover in WiMAX Networks 250

5.3.7 Multicast and Broadcast with WiMAX 253

5.4 Summary 254

References 255

6 Introduction to AeroMACS 259

6.1 The Origins of the AeroMACS Concept 259

6.1.1 WiMAX Salient Features and the Genealogy of AeroMACS 260

6.2 Defining Documents in the Making of AeroMACS Technology 262

6.3 AeroMACS Standardization 267

6.3.1 AeroMACS Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) 268

6.3.2 Harmonization Document 270

6.3.3 Overview of Most Recent AeroMACS Profile 271

6.3.3.1 The AeroMACS Profile Background and Concept of Operations 273

6.3.3.2 AeroMACS Profile Technical Aspects 275

6.3.3.3 Profile’s Key Assumptions for AeroMACS System Design 275

6.3.3.4 AeroMACS Radio Profile Requirements and Restrictions 276

6.3.3.5 AeroMACS Profile Common Part and TDD Format 277

6.3.4 AeroMACS Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) 279

6.3.4.1 AeroMACS Capabilities and Operational Applications 280

6.3.4.2 MOPS Equipment Test Procedures 281

6.3.4.3 Minimum Performance Standard 281

6.3.5 AeroMACS Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards (MASPS) 283

6.3.6 AeroMACS Technical Manual 285

6.4 AeroMACS Services and Applications 287

6.5 AeroMACS Prototype Network and Testbed 295

6.5.1 Testbed Configuration 296

6.5.2 Early Testing Procedures and Results 297

6.5.2.1 Mobile Application Testing with ARV 298

6.5.2.2 The Results of AeroMACS Mobile Tests with Boeing 737–700 299

6.5.2.3 AeroMACS Performance Validation 300

6.6 Summary 301

References 302

7 AeroMACS Networks Characterization 305

7.1 Introduction 305

7.2 AeroMACS Physical Layer Specifications 306

7.2.1 OFDM and OFDMA for AeroMACS 309

7.2.2 AeroMACS OFDMA TDD Frame Configuration 309

7.2.3 AeroMACS Modulation Formats 312

7.2.3.1 How to Select a Modulation Technique for a Specific Application 313

7.2.3.2 General Characteristics of Modulation Schemes Supported by AeroMACS 315

7.2.4 AeroMACS Channel Coding Schemes 318

7.2.4.1 Mandatory Channel Coding for AeroMACS 318

7.2.4.2 Optional CC–RS Code Concatenated Scheme 320

7.2.4.3 Convolutional Turbo Coding (CTC) Technique 321

7.2.5 Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) for AeroMACS Link Adaptation 323

7.2.6 AeroMACS Frame Structure 325

7.2.7 Computation of AeroMACS Receiver Sensitivity 326

7.2.8 Fractional Frequency Reuse for WiMAX and AeroMACS Networks 327

7.2.9 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Configurations for AeroMACS 328

7.3 Spectrum Considerations 329

7.4 Spectrum Sharing and Interference Compatibility Constraints 332

7.5 AeroMACS Media Access Control (MAC) Sublayer 334

7.5.1 Quality of Service for AeroMACS Networks 336

7.5.2 Scheduling, Resource Allocation, and Data Delivery 338

7.5.3 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Protocols 341

7.5.4 Handover (HO) Procedures in AeroMACS Networks 344

7.5.4.1 MS-Initiated Handover Process 345

7.6 AeroMACS Network Architecture and Reference Model 347

7.6.1 AeroMACS Network Architecture 347

7.6.2 AeroMACS Network Reference Model (NRM) 349

7.7 Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Revisited 353

7.8 AeroMACS and the Airport Network 355

7.9 Summary 356

References 358

8 AeroMACS Networks Fortified with Multihop Relays 361

8.1 Introduction 361

8.2 IEEE 802.16j Amendment Revisited 362

8.3 Relays: Definitions, Classification, and Modes of Operation 365

8.3.1 A Double-Hop Relay Configuration: Terminologies and Definitions 366

8.3.2 Relay Modes: Transparent versus Non-Transparent 368

8.3.3 Time Division Transmit and Receive Relays (TTR) and Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Relays (STR) 371

8.3.4 Further Division of Relay Modes of Operation 372

8.3.5 Relays Classification Based on MAC Layer Functionalities: Centralized and Distributed Modes 373

8.3.6 Physical Classification of IEEE 802.16j Relays: Relay Types 374

8.3.6.1 Relay Type and Latency 375

8.3.7 Modes of Deployment of IEEE 802.16j Relays in Wireless Networks 376

8.3.8 Frame Structure for Double-Hop IEEE 802.16j TDD TRS 377

8.3.8.1 The Detail of IEEE 802-16j Operation with Transparent Relays 380

8.3.9 The Frame Structure for TTR–NTRS 381

8.3.10 The Frame Structure for STR–NTRS 382

8.3.10.1 STR Implementation in Different Layers 384

8.4 Regarding MAC Layers of IEEE 802.16j and NRTS 385

8.4.1 Data Forwarding Schemes 385

8.4.1.1 Routing Selection and Path Management 386

8.4.1.2 Initial Ranging and Network Entry 387

8.4.2 Scheduling 388

8.4.3 Security Schemes 390

8.4.4 Quality of Service (QoS) in Relay-Augmented Networks 390

8.4.4.1 The Impact of Scheduling and Relay Mode on AeroMACS Network Parameters 391

8.5 Challenges and Practical Issues in IEEE 802.16j-Based AeroMACS 392

8.5.1 Latency 392

8.5.2 The Number of Hops 392

8.5.3 The Output Power and Antenna Selection 393

8.6 Applications and Usage Scenarios for Relay-Augmented Broadband Cellular Networks 394

8.6.1 Some Applications of Relay-Fortified Systems 395

8.6.1.1 The European REWIND Project 395

8.6.1.2 Vehicular Networks 396

8.6.1.3 4G and 5G Cellular Networks 396

8.6.1.4 Cognitive Femtocell 397

8.6.2 Potential Usage Scenarios of IEEE 802.16j 397

8.6.2.1 Radio Outreach Extension 397

8.6.2.2 The Concept of “Filling a Coverage Hole” 399

8.6.2.3 Relays for Capacity and Throughput Improvement 399

8.6.2.4 The Case of Cooperative Relaying 399

8.6.2.5 Reliable Coverage for In-Building and In-Door Scenarios 400

8.6.2.6 The Mobile Relays 401

8.6.2.7 The Temporary Relay Stations 401

8.7 IEEE 802.16j-Based Relays for AeroMACS Networks 401

8.7.1 Airport Surface Radio Coverage Situations for which IEEE 802.16j Offers a Preferred Alternative 402

8.8 Radio Resource Management (RRM) for Relay-Fortified Wireless Networks 403

8.9 The Multihop Gain 405

8.9.1 Computation of Multihop Gain for the Simplest Case 405

8.10 Interapplication Interference (IAI) in Relay-Fortified AeroMACS 407

8.11 Making the Case for IEEE 802.16j-Based AeroMACS 411

8.11.1 The Main Arguments 411

8.11.1.1 Supporting and Drawback Instants 412

8.11.2 The Second Argument 412

8.11.3 How to Select a Relay Configuration 413

8.11.4 A Note on Cell Footprint Extension 413

8.12 Summary 414

References 415

Index 419