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Aerospace Navigation Systems

Aerospace Navigation Systems

Alexander V. Nebylov (Editor), Joseph Watson (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-16306-0

May 2016

392 pages

Description

Compiled by leading authorities, Aerospace Navigation Systems is a compendium of chapters that present modern aircraft and spacecraft navigation methods based on up-to-date inertial, satellite, map matching and other guidance techniques. Ranging from the practical to the theoretical, this book covers navigational applications over a wide range of aerospace vehicles including aircraft, spacecraft and drones, both remotely controlled and operating as autonomous vehicles.  It provides a comprehensive background of fundamental theory, the utilisation of newly-developed techniques, incorporates the most complex and advanced types of technical innovation currently available and presents a vision for future developments. Satellite Navigation Systems (SNS), long range navigation systems, short range navigation systems and navigational displays are introduced, and many other detailed topics include Radio Navigation Systems (RNS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Homing Systems, Map Matching and other correlated-extremalsystems, and both  optimal and sub-optimal filtering in integrated navigation systems.

The Editors xi

Acknowledgments xii

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1 Inertial Navigation Systems 1
Michael S. Braasch

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Accelerometer Sensing Equation 2

1.3 Reference Frames 3

1.3.1 True Inertial Frame 3

1.3.2 Earth-Centered Inertial Frame or i-Frame 3

1.3.3 Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed Frame or e-Frame 3

1.3.4 Navigation Frame 3

1.3.5 Body Frame 4

1.3.6 Sensor Frames (a-Frame, g-Frame) 5

1.4 Direction Cosine Matrices and Quaternions 5

1.5 Attitude Update 6

1.5.1 Body Frame Update 7

1.5.2 Navigation Frame Update 8

1.5.3 Euler Angle Extraction 9

1.6 Navigation Mechanization 10

1.7 Position Update 11

1.8 INS Initialization 12

1.9 INS Error Characterization 14

1.9.1 Mounting Errors 14

1.9.2 Initialization Errors 14

1.9.3 Sensor Errors 14

1.9.4 Gravity Model Errors 14

1.9.5 Computational Errors 15

1.9.6 Simulation Examples 15

1.10 Calibration and Compensation 23

1.11 Production Example 24

References 25

2 Satellite Navigation Systems 26
Walter Geri, Boris V. Shebshaevich and Matteo Zanzi

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Preliminary Considerations 27

2.3 Navigation Problems Using Satellite Systems 27

2.3.1 The Geometrical Problem 28

2.3.2 Reference Coordinate Systems 29

2.3.3 The Classical Mathematical Model 33

2.4 Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) 38

2.4.1 The Global Positioning System 38

2.4.2 GLONASS 51

2.4.3 Galileo 56

2.4.4 BeiDou (Compass) 61

2.4.5 State and Development of the Japanese QZSS 63

2.4.6 State and Development of the IRNSS 64

2.5 GNSS Observables 65

2.5.1 Carrier-Phase Observables 65

2.5.2 Doppler Frequency Observables 68

2.5.3 Single-Difference Observables 69

2.5.4 Double-Difference Observables 71

2.5.5 Triple-Difference Observables 72

2.5.6 Linear Combinations 72

2.5.7 Integer Ambiguity Resolution 74

2.6 Sources of Error 75

2.6.1 Ionosphere Effects 77

2.6.2 Troposphere Effects 80

2.6.3 Selective Availability (SA) Effects 81

2.6.4 Multipath Effects 82

2.6.5 Receiver Noise 82

2.7 GNSS Receivers 82

2.7.1 Receiver Architecture 82

2.7.2 Carrier Smoothing 85

2.7.3 Attitude Estimation 87

2.7.4 Typical Receivers on the Market 88

2.8 Augmentation Systems 90

2.8.1 Differential Techniques 90

2.8.2 The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Technique 92

2.8.3 Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems 93

2.9 Integration of GNSS with Other Sensors 97

2.9.1 GNSS/INS 98

2.10 Aerospace Applications 100

2.10.1 The Problem of Integrity 101

2.10.2 Air Navigation: En Route, Approach, and Landing 103

2.10.3 Surveillance and Air Traffic Control (ATC) 103

2.10.4 Space Vehicle Navigation 105

References 105

3 Radio Systems for Long-Range Navigation 109
Anatoly V. Balov and Sergey P. Zarubin

3.1 Introduction 109

3.2 Principles of Operation 111

3.3 Coverage 116

3.4 Interference in VLF and LF Radio-Navigation Systems 118

3.5 Error Budget 122

3.5.1 Loran-C and CHAYKA Error Budget 122

3.5.2 ALPHA and OMEGA Error Budget 124

3.5.3 Position Error 125

3.6 LF Radio System Modernization 126

3.6.1 EUROFIX—Regional GNSS Differential Subsystem 127

3.6.2 Enhanced Loran 129

3.6.3 Enhanced Differential Loran 130

3.7 User Equipment 132

References 138

4 Radio Systems for Short-Range Navigation 141
J. Paul Sims and Joseph Watson

4.1 Overview of Short-Range Navigational Aids 141

4.2 Nondirectional Radio Beacon and the “Automatic Direction Finder” 142

4.2.1 Operation and Controls 143

4.3 VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range 148

4.3.1 Basic VOR Principles 148

4.3.2 The Doppler VOR 149

4.4 DME and TACAN Systems 154

4.4.1 DME Equipment 154

4.4.2 Tactical Air Navigation 156

4.4.3 The VORTAC Station 156

4.4.4 The Radiotechnical Short-Range Navigation System 158

4.4.5 Principles of Operation and Construction of the RSBN System 159

References 160

5 Radio Technical Landing Systems 162
J. Paul Sims

5.1 Instrument Landing Systems 162

5.1.1 The Marker Beacons 162

5.1.2 Approach Guidance—Ground Installations 164

5.1.3 Approach Guidance—Aircraft Equipment 167

5.1.4 CAT II and III Landing 167

5.2 Microwave Landing Systems—Current Status 169

5.2.1 MLS Basic Concepts 170

5.2.2 MLS Functionality 170

5.3 Ground-Based Augmentation System 171

5.3.1 Current Status 172

5.3.2 Technical Features 172

5.4 Lighting Systems—Airport Visual Landing Aids and Other Short-Range Optical Navigation Systems 174

5.4.1 The Visual Approach Slope Indicator 175

5.4.2 Precision Approach Path Indicator 176

5.4.3 The Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal 177

References 177

6 Correlated-Extremal Systems and Sensors 179
Evgeny A. Konovalov and Sergey P. Faleev

6.1 Construction Principles 179

6.1.1 General Information 182

6.1.2 Mathematical Foundation 186

6.1.3 Basic CES Elements and Units 187

6.1.4 Analog and Digital Implementation Methods 187

6.2 Image Sensors for CES 189

6.3 Aviation and Space CES 192

6.3.1 Astro-Orientation CES 193

6.3.2 Navigational CES 193

6.3.3 Aviation Guidance via Television Imaging 194

6.4 Prospects for CES Development 197

6.4.1 Combined CES 197

6.4.2 Micro-Miniaturization of CES and the Constituent Components 198

6.4.3 Prospects for CES Improvement 198

6.4.4 New Properties and Perspectives in CES 199

References 200

7 Homing Devices 202
Georgy V. Antsev and Valentine A. Sarychev

7.1 Introduction 202

7.2 Definition of Homing Devices 205

7.2.1 Homing Systems for Autonomous and Group Operations 205

7.2.2 Guidance and Homing Systems 206

7.2.3 Principles and Classification of Homing Devices 207

7.3 Homing Device Functioning in Signal Fields 212

7.3.1 Characteristics of Homing Device Signal Fields 212

7.3.2 Optoelectronic Sensors for Homing Devices 214

7.3.3 Radar Homing Devices 215

7.4 Characteristics of Homing Methods 221

7.4.1 Aerospace Vehicle Homing Methods 221

7.4.2 Homing Device Dynamic Errors 226

7.5 Homing Device Efficiency 227

7.5.1 Homing Device Accuracy 228

7.5.2 Homing Device Dead Zones 229

7.6 Radio Proximity Fuze 230

7.7 Homing Device Functioning Under Jamming Conditions 232

7.8 Intelligent Homing Devices 238

References 240

8 Optimal and Suboptimal Filtering in Integrated Navigation Systems 244
Oleg A. Stepanov

8.1 Introduction 244

8.2 Filtering Problems: Main Approaches and Algorithms 244

8.2.1 The Least Squares Method 245

8.2.2 The Wiener Approach 246

8.2.3 The Kalman Approach 249

8.2.4 Comparison of Kalman and Wiener Approaches 252

8.2.5 Beyond the Kalman Filter 254

8.3 Filtering Problems for Integrated Navigation Systems 258

8.3.1 Filtering Problems Encountered in the Processing of Data from Systems Directly Measuring the Parameters to be Estimated 259

8.3.2 Filtering Problems in Aiding a Navigation System (Linearized Case) 264

8.3.3 Filtering Problems in Aiding a Navigation System (Nonlinear Case) 266

8.4 Filtering Algorithms for Processing Data from Inertial and Satellite Systems 271

8.4.1 Inertial System Error Models 272

8.4.2 The Filtering Problem in Loosely Coupled INS/SNS 277

8.4.3 The Filtering Problem in Tightly Coupled INS/SNS 278

8.4.4 Example of Filtering Algorithms for an Integrated INS/SNS 281

8.5 Filtering and Smoothing Problems Based on the Combined Use of Kalman and Wiener Approaches for Aviation Gravimetry 285

8.5.1 Statement of the Optimal Filtering and Smoothing Problems in the Processing of Gravimeter and Satellite Measurements 286

8.5.2 Problem Statement and Solution within the Kalman Approach 288

8.5.3 Solution Using the Method of PSD Local Approximations 291

Acknowledgment 295

References 295

9 Navigational Displays 299
Ron T. Ogan

9.1 Introduction to Modern Aerospace Navigational Displays 299

9.1.1 The Human Interface for Display Control—Buttonology 300

9.1.2 Rapidly Configurable Displays for Glass Cockpit Customization Purposes 304

9.2 A Global Positioning System Receiver and Map Display 306

9.2.1 Databases 308

9.2.2 Fully Integrated Flight Control 310

9.2.3 Advanced AHRS Architecture 310

9.2.4 Weather and Digital Audio Functions 310

9.2.5 Traffic Information Service 311

9.3 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) System Displays 313

9.4 Collision Avoidance and Ground Warning Displays 315

9.4.1 Terrain Awareness Warning System (TAWS): Classes A and B 318

Appendix: Terminology and Review of Some US Federal Aviation Regulations 319

References 319

10 Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Navigation 321
Vladimir Y. Raspopov, Alexander V. Nebylov, Sukrit Sharan and Bijay Agarwal

10.1 The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle 321

10.2 Small-Sized UAVs 321

10.3 The UAV as a Controlled Object 326

10.4 UAV Navigation 329

10.4.1 Methods of Controlling Flight Along Intended Tracks 331

10.4.2 Basic Equations for UAV Inertial Navigation 333

10.4.3 Algorithms for Four-Dimensional (Terminal) Navigation 339

10.5 Examples of Construction and Technical Characteristics of the Onboard Avionic Control Equipment 343

10.6 Small-Sized Unmanned WIG and Amphibious UAVs 349

10.6.1 Emerging Trends in the Development of Unmanned WIG UAVs and USVs, and Amphibious UAVs 350

10.6.2 Radio Altimeter and Inertial Sensor Integration 354

10.6.3 Development of Control Systems for Unmanned WIG Aircraft and Amphibious UAVs 356

10.6.4 The Design of High-precision Instruments and Sensor Integration for the Measurement of Low Altitudes 358

References 359

Index 361