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Africa's Geography: Dynamics of Place, Cultures, and Economies

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Africa's Geography: Dynamics of Place, Cultures, and Economies

Benjamin Ofori-Amoah

ISBN: 978-1-119-40160-5 April 2019 624 Pages

Description

Africa's Geography presents a comprehensive exploration of the world’s second largest and most culturally diverse continent. Author Benjamin Ofori-Amoah challenges common misconceptions and misrepresentations of Africa from a geographical perspective, harnessing the power of modern geographic mapping technology to explore this unique continent. This text provides thorough coverage of the historical, cultural, economic, and political forces that continue to shape Africa, applying geographic context to relevant past and contemporary issues. Coverage of economic development, climate and biogeography, transportation and communication, manufacturing and commerce, and mining and agriculture provides foundational knowledge of this vast and complex continent.

Ideally suited for multiple areas of classroom study, this text offers an effective and flexible pedagogical framework. Coverage of the entirety of Africa enables students to develop a cohesive portrait of the continent as a whole and identify the dynamism of its nations, cultures, and economies. Engaging and accessible narrative strengthens comprehension, while examples of historical and contemporary events increase student interest. Innovative and unique, Africa’s Geography is an essential resource for cross-disciplinary investigation of this fascinating part of the world.

Preface v

Acknowledgments vii

1 This is Africa 1

Africa—The One Small Country Continent 2

Africa, the Uniform Region 2

Box 1.1 | North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa 7

Africa, the Epitome of Poverty, Backwardness, and the State of being a “Third World” 8

Box 1.2 | Mackinnon and Chambers Contrasting Economic Fortunes of China and Africa 9

Do You See Lions and Cheetahs in the Streets and on the Way to School? 10

You Must Have Studied Outside Africa! 10

Sources of Negative Images and Perceptions about Africa 10

Ethnocentrism and the Role of Early European Visitors to Africa 11

The Nature of News and the Media 11

The Nature of Academic Research Enterprise 13

Nongovernmental Organizations and the Aid Industry 14

The Demonstration Effect of Past and Current Behavior of Vested

Interest Groups in Africa 14

The Plan of This Book 14

Postreading Assignment 16

Web Resources 16

References 17

2 From Empires in the Sand and Civilizations in the Jungle to Colonies and Freedom 18

The Origins of the African People 19

Evolution and Development of Early Cultures 20

Transformation through Agriculture, Metallurgy, and Expansion 21

Establishment of Agriculture 21

The Processing and Use of Metals 22

Population Expansion 22

The Development of African Civilizations 23

North and East Africa 23

West Africa 27

Central and Southern Africa 32

Africa and the Outside World 34

North Africa and the Outside World 34

The Swahili Coast 36

The Trans-Saharan Trade 36

The Coming of (Western) Europeans and Early Colonies 38

The Slave Trades 39

The Atlantic Slave Trade 39

The Indian Ocean Slave Trade 40

Abolition and Effects of the Slave Trade 41

Christian Missionaries, “Legitimate” Trade, and the Mapping of Africa 41

Box 2.1 | Samuel White Baker’s “Discovery” of the Albert Nyanza (Lake Albert) 42

Legitimate Trade and the Mapping of Africa 42

Colonial Africa 43

The Scramble for and the Partition of Africa 43

Box 2.2 | Colonization of the Rhodesias 44

Colonial Administrative Policies and Systems 45

The Colonial Economy 46

The Return to Independence 49

The March to Independence 51

British Colonies 52

French Colonies 52

Belgian Colonies 53

Portuguese Colonies 53

South West Africa and Eritrea 54

The Struggle to End Apartheid 54

South Sudan 55

The Ongoing Saga of Western Sahara 55

Box 2.3 | The Maxim Gun 56

Summary 56

Postreading Assignment 57

References 57

3 The Struggle for a Better Standard of Living 59

Economic Development Theories and Ideologies 60

Capitalist Ideology and Modernization Theories 60

Marxist or Socialist Ideology and Dependency Theories 61

Africa’s Economic Development in Practice 63

The 1950s–1960s: From the Modernization Project to Mixed

Development Strategies 63

The 1970s: From Mixed Development Experiments to Economic Insolvency 66

The 1980s: From Economic Insolvency to Structural Adjustment Programs 71

The 1990s: Poststructural Adjustment Era 73

Looking Back 77

Postreading Assignments 79

References 80

4 Geology, Relief, and Drainage Basins 82

The Geology of Africa 82

The Precambrian Time (4.6 b to 570 m years ago) 82

The Paleozoic Era (570 m to 245 m years ago) 83

The Mesozoic Era (245 m to 66.4 m years ago) 84

The Cenozoic Era (About 66.4 m to the Most Recent) 84

The Relief of Africa 85

The Coastal Plains 87

The Mediterranean Coast 87

The Atlantic Coast 87

The Indian Ocean and the Red Sea Coasts 88

The Interior Plateaus and Highlands 88

Low Africa 89

High Africa 95

Drainage Basins of Africa 98

River Basins 99

The Congo Basin 99

The Nile Basin 101

The Chad Basin 102

The Niger Basin 103

The Zambezi Basin 105

The Orange Basin 106

Minor River Basins 106

Lakes 108

Lake Victoria 109

Lake Tanganyika 109

Lake Malawi (Nyasa) 110

Lake Albert 110

Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf) 111

Lake Kivu 111

Other Lakes 112

Summary 112

Postreading Assignment 112

References 113

5 Climate, Biogeography, and Soils 115

Climate 115

Factors Affecting Africa’s Climate 116

Climatic Types 121

Biogeography 127

Tropical Rain Forest 127

Warm Temperate (Mediterranean) Forest 128

Tropical Woodland 129

Dry or Sudan Savanna 130

Semi-Desert or Sahel 130

Desert 130

Temperate Grassland 131

Mountain Vegetation 131

Soils 132

Nature’s Opportunities and Challenges 133

Nature’s Opportunities 133

Abundance of Mineral Wealth 134

Abundant Wildlife Habitat 134

Abundant Sunshine and Long Growing Season 134

Nature’s Challenges 134

Unequal Distribution of Natural Resources 134

Climate Change 135

Desertification 139

Summary 142

Postreading Assignments 143

References 143

6 Population 146

Population Size and Distribution 146

Distribution by Density 147

Rural–Urban Distribution 149

Factors Affecting Population Distribution 150

Physical Environmental Factors 150

Human Factors 152

Population Characteristics 153

Age and Sex Composition 153

Population Pyramids 155

Income, Education Attainment, and Life Expectancy at Birth 155

Population Growth 158

Natural Increase 159

Population Issues 175

Population Growth (Natural Increase) and Economic Development 175

Rapid Population Growth and Africa’s Economic Development 176

Migration and Development 177

Summary 179

Postreading Assignment 180

References 181

7 Unity in Diversity 184

Introduction 184

Factors Affecting Africa’s Societies and Cultures 184

Ethnocentrism 184

Christianity and Islam 185

Colonialism 185

Postcolonial Policies and Realities 186

Globalization 186

A Sample of Africa’s Cultural Attributes 187

Race and Ethnicity 187

Religions and Worldviews 191

Box 7.1 | William Wade Harris: An African Prophet 194

Box 7.2 | Simon Kimbangu: African Envoy of Jesus Christ 195

Languages 199

Box 7.3 | Shehu Usuman dan Fodio—Commander of the Faithful 202

Literature 203

Visual Art and Symbolism 205

Family and Kinship 209

Age, Sex, and Gender 214

Cuisines 217

Dress and Adornment 218

Social Relations and Lifestyle 220

Africa’s Social and Cultural Issues 221

Language and Development 221

Oral Literature and Corruption 222

Ethnicity and Conflicts 222

Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism 223

Summary 224

Postreading Assignments 224

References 225

8 Cities, Towns, and Villages 228

Some Concepts and Definitions 228

Evolution and Development of Africa’s Urban System 230

The Postcolonial City or Contemporary African City 241

Rural Areas: Small Towns and Villages 254

Evolution and Development of Rural Settlements 254

Internal Structure of Rural Settlements 255

Rural–Urban Linkages and Interactions 256

Social Linkages and Interaction 256

Economic Linkages and Interactions 257

Political Linkages and Interactions 257

Summary 258

Postreading Assignments 258

References 259

9 Politics and Governance 263

Introduction 263

Evolution and Development of Political and Governance Systems in Africa 264

Colonial Africa 265

Postcolonial Africa 266

Politics and Governance Indicators of Africa 275

Political and Governance Issues in Africa 279

The Land Question 280

Box 9.1 | Zimbabwe’s Land Question 281

Democratic Multiparty Elections 283

Box 9.2 | Ghana’s 2008 Election 284

Civil Society, Citizen Representation, and Accountability 285

Rule of Law and Access to Justice 287

Neopatrimonialism, Venality, and Corruption 288

Civil Wars 290

Ethnic and Minority Issues 295

Box 9.3 | The Amazigh (Berber) Spring 296

Women Issues 297

The Media and Press Freedom 298

The Problem of Local Government Reforms 299

Regional Groupings and Changing Geopolitics 300

Summary 301

Postreading Assignments 302

References 303

10 Transportation and Communication 000

Prereading Assignment 000

Transportation 000

Road Transportation 000

Water Transportation—Inland Waterways and Ocean Transportation 000

Rail Transportation 000

Air Transportation 000

Postcolonial Developments 000

Organization and Performance of Air Transportation Service 000

Communication 000

Telecommunication in Precolonial and Colonial Periods 000

Postcolonial Developments 000

Privatization 000

Regulatory Efforts 000

Fixed Telephones 000

Radio 000

Mobile Communication 000

The Internet 000

Social Media: Google, Twitter, Facebook on Mobile 000

Telecommunication and Development of Africa 000

Summary 000

Postreading Assignment 000

A. Study the Following Concepts 000

B. Discuss the Following Questions 000

References 000

11 Agriculture 1

Evolution and Development of Agriculture in Africa 1

Colonial Africa 3

Postcolonial Africa 7

Box 11.1 | The Ethiopian Famine of 1982 11

Decline of Agricultural Research 12

Agricultural Production Systems in Africa 16

Crop Production Systems 16

Problems and Issues in Africa’s Agriculture 38

Low Productivity 38

The Problem of Institutions and Markets 39

Disempowered Farmers and Communities 40

A Note on Food Insecurity 40

Policy Options 41

Raising Agricultural Productivity 41

Agricultural Research, Rural Infrastructure, and Institutional Reforms 41

The Need for Agricultural Revolution 42

Postreading Assignment 44

References 44

12 Fisheries and Forestry 2

Fisheries 2

Classification of Fisheries, Fishing Vessels and Methods, and Fisheries

Data 3

Fishing Methods and Vessels 3

Fisheries Data 3

Evolution and Development of African Fisheries 5

The Colonial Period 7

Postcolonial Period 8

Fisheries Production 12

Capture Fisheries 12

Marine Capture Fisheries 12

Culture Fisheries or Aquaculture 19

Types of Aquaculture 19

Factors Affecting the Location of Aquaculture 19

Aquaculture Operations 20

Production Trends 21

Problems and Issues in Fisheries 22

Problems and Issues of Capture Fisheries 22

Problems and Issues of Culture Fisheries 24

Summary 25

Forestry 25

Evolution and Development of African Forestry 26

Colonial Period 27

Postcolonial Period 29

The Brazzaville Process, the Yaoundé Declaration, and the Liberian Timber Ban 33

Timber Certification 34

The 2008–2009 Recession and Africa’s Timber Market 34

Production of Forest Products 35

Forest Products Operations 36

Production Trends 36

Industrial Roundwood 37

Problems and Issues in Africa’s Forestry 39

Population Growth, Urbanization, and the Dry Forest 39

Low Government Priority and Overreliance on Foreign Capital 39

Summary 42

Postreading Assignment 43

References 43

13 Mineral and Energy Production 1

Mineral Production 1

Evolution and Development of Mineral Production in Africa 3

Box 13.1 | The Rise and Fall of State-Owned Mining Operations: The Experience of Africa’s Copperbelt 6

Box 13.2 | Mineral Sector Reforms in the Democratic Republic of Congo 9

African Mining Vision (AVM) 10

Mineral Production Operations 11

Industrial or Large-Scale Mineral Production (IMP) 11

Artisanal Mineral Production (AMP) 12

Distribution and Production of Major Minerals 13

Energy Production 23

Energy Production 26

Problems and Issues in Mineral and Energy Production 34

Physical and Human Impact of Mineral and Energy Production 34

Mineral Production, Conflict, and Development 35

Summary 39

Postreading Assignment 39

References 40

14 Manufacturing Activities 1

Evolution and Development of Manufacturing Activities in Africa 2

The Colonial Period 2

Postcolonial Africa 3

Manufacturing Production Systems (MPS) of Africa 8

Indigenous Manufacturing Production System 9

Small-Scale Manufacturing Production System 9

Box 14.1 | The Small-Scale Palm Oil Industry in Ghana 10

Large-Scale Manufacturing Production Systems 10

Major Manufacturing Industries 10

The Aluminum Industry 11

The Automotive Industry 18

The Chemical Industry 21

The Forest Products Industry 22

The Iron and Steel Industry 23

The Metallurgical Industry 27

The Pharmaceutical Industry 28

Food and Beverage Processing 30

The Computer and Electronics Industry 33

The Leather Goods Industry 34

The Textile and Garment Industry 35

Problems and Prospects of Industrialization 39

Political Instability and Leadership 39

Lack of Sustained Industrialization Policy 40

Low Value Addition 40

Weak inter- and Intrasectoral Linkages 41

High Dependence of Foreign Capital 41

Weak Supporting Infrastructure 41

Prospects for Industrialization 41

Summary 42

Postreading Assignments 44

References 44

15 Trade and Tourism 000

Prereading Assignments 000

Trade 000

Evolution and Development of Trade in Africa 000

Precolonial Africa 000

Colonial Africa 000

Postcolonial Africa 000

Types and Organization of Trading Activities 000

Internal or Domestic Trade 000

External or International Trade 000

Africa’s Trade Issues 000

Tourism 000

The Evolution and Development of Tourism in Africa 000

Africa’s Tourist Trade 000

The Role of Tourism in African Economies 000

Composition and Volume of Africa’s Tourist Trade 000

Purpose and Types of International Tourism 000

Tourism and Economic Development of Africa 000

Postreading Assignment 000

References 000

16 Education and Health Care 000

Prereading Assignments 000

Education 000

Evolution and Development of Education in Africa 000

Precolonial Africa 000

The Colonial Period 000

Postcolonial Period 000

Africa’s Education System 000

Primary Education 000

Secondary Education 000

Tertiary Education 000

Educational Attainment and Participation 000

Problems and Issues in Africa’s Education System 000

Financing and Education Policy 000

Accessibility 000

Social Inequities 000

Affordability 000

Resources, Quantity, and Quality Issues 000

Summary 000

Health 000

Evolution and Development of Africa’s Health-Care Systems 000

Precolonial Africa 000

The Colonial Period 000

Postcolonial Period 000

Disease Ecology, Morbidity and, Mortality in Africa 000

Endemic Diseases of Africa 000

Causes of Death 000

Improved Drinking Water and Sanitation 000

Africa’s Health-Care Delivery System 000

The Modern Medicine Sector 000

The Traditional Medicine Sector 000

The Faith Healing Sector 000

Problems and Issues in Africa’s Health-Care System 000

Financing 000

Policy 000

Inadequate Facilities, Human Resources, and Service 000

Spatial and Social Inequities in Health Care Service 000

Drug Shortages and Fake Drugs 000

Summary 000

Postreading Assignment 000

References 000

Back Matter 000

  • Presents the first comprehensive textbook on Africa published in the last two decades
  • Covers Africa as a complete continent and allows flexible course structure, such as study of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Applies historical context to topics including slavery and colonialism, and their influence in shaping modern Africa
  • Offers extensive examination of economic issues, particularly economic development
  • Employs modern geographic technologies, such as Geographic Information System mapping technology (GIS)
  • Provides an effective pedagogical framework to strengthen student retention and comprehension