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Aging and Older Adulthood, 3rd Edition

Aging and Older Adulthood, 3rd Edition

Joan T. Erber

ISBN: 978-0-470-67341-6

Jan 2013, Wiley-Blackwell

504 pages

In Stock

$83.95

Description

The third edition of this essential text has been updated and expanded with new material that reflects the most recent developments in the field, and explores our current understanding of a broad range of topics related to aging and older adulthood.

  • Fresh edition includes  updated content such as revised case histories and reworked material on key concepts and research applications
  • Retains the winning format of the second edition, with chapter contents framed by individual histories
  • Dual models add cohesiveness to the presentation of theory
  • Thematic structure facilitates reader comprehension
  • Instructor resources provided online upon publication at www.wiley.com/go/erber

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Credits and Sources xix

Figures xix

Tables xxi

Integrated Themes in Aging and Older Adulthood xxiii

Integrated Examples of the Diversity Theme xxiii

Integrated Examples of the Environmental Influences on Aging Theme xxvi

Integrated Examples of the Applications to Everyday Life Theme xxix

Preface and Acknowledgments xxxiii

1 Introduction to Aging and Older Adulthood 1

The Study of Aging and Older Adulthood 3

History of the Scientific Study of Aging 3

Geriatrics and Gerontology 5

Why Was the Study of Aging Neglected? 5

Reasons for Studying Aging and Older Adulthood 6

Defining Age and Older Adulthood 7

Definitions of Age 8

What Is Older Adulthood? 10

Demographic Profile of Older Americans 14

Global Considerations and Demographic Transition 14

Number and Proportion of Older Adults 15

A Snapshot of the Older Population 18

Developmental Influences and Issues 23

Influences on Development 23

Issues in the Study of Aging 26

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 1.1: A NEW OUTLOOK ON OLD AGE 27

Theoretical Models 28

The Selective Optimization with Compensation Model of Aging 28

The Ecological Model of Aging 29

Questions to Consider 30

Key Points 31

Key Terms 32

2 Theory and Method in Studying Aging and Older Adulthood 33

Metatheoretical Approaches to the Study of Aging 35

The Mechanistic Metamodel 35

The Organismic Metamodel 36

The Contextual Metamodel 36

The Life-Span Developmental Perspective 37

Developmental Research 37

The Age Variable 38

Factors in Aging Research 39

Research Design 41

Measurement 46

Reliability 47

Validity 47

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 2.1: FOCUS ON MEASUREMENT 48

Sampling 49

Approaches to Conducting Aging Research 51

The Experimental Approach 51

The Quasi-Experimental Approach 52

Multifactor Designs 53

The Descriptive Approach 55

Ethics in Research on Human Aging 56

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 58

Questions to Consider 59

Key Points 59

Key Terms 60

3 Biological Aging and Health 61

The Meaning of Longevity 63

Life Expectancy 63

Life Span 65

The Biological Aging Process 68

Primary and Secondary Aging 68

Programmed Theories of Biological Aging 69

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 3.1: LONGEVITY: GENETIC MUTATIONS AND HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE 70

Stochastic Theories of Biological Aging 71

Caloric Restriction and Longevity 73

Individual Differences in Longevity 74

Nature and Nurture 75

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 3.2: GENDER CROSSOVER IN LATE OLDER ADULTHOOD 75

Can Social Scientists Predict Longevity? 79

Maximizing Longevity 81

Physical Changes and Disease 82

Body Systems 82

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 3.3: AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN, SELF-RELIANCE, AND HEALTH 85

Leading Causes of Mortality 94

Everyday Functioning and Health Care 95

Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living 95

Medication 96

Health Insurance 96

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 97

Questions to Consider 98

Key Points 98

Key Terms 99

4 Sensation, Perception, and Attention 100

Sensory Processes 102

Threshold and Sensitivity 102

Absolute Threshold 103

Signal Detection 103

Speed of Response 104

Reaction Time 104

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 4.1: REACTION TIME AND DRIVING 105

Age–Complexity Hypothesis 106

Stimulus Persistence Theory 106

Moderating Age-Related Slowing 107

The Senses: A Closer Look 108

Smell and Taste 108

Touch, Proprioception, and Pain 108

Vision 110

Hearing 113

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 4.2: TECHNOLOGY USE AMONG OLDER ADULTS 114

Attention 121

Theoretical Models 121

Attention Tasks 124

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 4.1: CELL PHONES AND STREET CROSSING 125

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 129

Questions to Consider 130

Key Points 130

Key Terms 131

5 Memory 132

The Developmental Study of Memory and Age 134

Concerns About Memory and Aging 134

The Information Processing Model 134

The Sensory Store 135

The Short-Term Store 135

The Long-Term Store 137

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 5.1: FALSE MEMORY 140

Noncontent Attributes of Episodic Memory 140

Stages of Processing in Episodic Memory 142

Remote Memory 146

Factual Information 146

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 5.1: THE REMINISCENCE BUMP 147

Autobiographical Information 147

Memory in Everyday Life 147

Prospective Memory 148

Implicit Memory 149

Memory Training 150

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 5.2: MEMORY CUES AND SHOPPING 152

Discourse Memory 152

Knowledge and Beliefs About Memory 154

Metamemory 154

Memory Self-Efficacy 155

Memory Self-Evaluation 156

Stereotypes About Memory and Aging 157

Attributions for Memory Failure 159

Individual Diff erences Among Older Adults 159

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 5.3: AEROBIC EXERCISE, HIPPOCAMPAL BRAIN VOLUME, AND SPATIAL MEMORY 160

Education and Lifestyle 160

Health 161

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 162

Questions to Consider 162

Key Points 163

Key Terms 164

6 Intellectual Functioning 165

Views of Intelligence 167

How Many Intelligences Are There? 167

Sternberg ’ s Components of Intelligence 167

Intelligence and the Aging Process 168

The Psychometric Approach to Intelligence 170

Brief History of the Test Movement 170

Psychometric Tests and Aging Research 171

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) 174

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 6.1: THE FLYNN EFFECT 175

Cultural Diversity 175

Does Intelligence Decline with Age? 176

Positive and Negative Cohort Trends 178

The Classic Aging Pattern 179

The Life-Span Developmental Perspective 180

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 6.1: THE DEDIFFERENTIATION HYPOTHESIS 180

Maximizing Intellectual Functioning in Older Adulthood 181

Testing the Limits 181

Intervention 181

Compensation 182

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 6.2: THE ACTIVE PROJECT 182

Unexercised Versus Optimally Exercised Abilities 183

Individual Diff erences Among Older Adult Test Takers 183

Factors Related to Maintenance of Intellectual Functioning 183

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 6.2: COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND NEUROBIOLOGY: THE ROLE OF WHITE MATTER HYPERINTENSITIES (WMH) 184

Mental Activity and Intellectual Functioning 185

Everyday Intelligence and Competence 188

Psychometric Tests and Ecological Validity 188

Conceptions of Intelligence Across the Adult Life Span 189

Cognitive Competence and Psychometric Scores 190

Encapsulation 191

Competence in Daily Life 191

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 195

Questions to Consider 196

Key Points 196

Key Terms 198

7 Cognition and Problem Solving in the Everyday World 199

Stages of Cognitive Development 201

Schaie ’ s Stage Model of Cognitive/Intellectual Development 201

Biographical Sketch Box 7.1: Author Harry Bernstein 203

Postformal Thought 204

Wisdom 205

What Is Wisdom? 205

Age and Wisdom 208

Real-World Intelligence and Problem Solving 210

Practical Intelligence 210

Creative Intelligence 211

Solving Interpersonal Problems 214

Decision Making 214

Decision Making in a Health Context 215

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 7.1: FRAMING EFFECTS IN MEDICAL DECISIONS 218

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 7.2: YOUNG AND OLDER ADULTS’ PREFERENCE FOR CHOICE 219

Decision Making in a Consumer Context 220

Decision Making in a Legal Context 221

Social Cognition 222

Impression Formation 222

Causal Attributions 223

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 7.1: TRAIT DIAGNOSTICITY 224

Moral Reasoning 226

Collaboration in Reasoning and Problem Solving 228

Emotion and Cognition 229

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 231

Questions to Consider 232

Key Points 232

Key Terms 233

8 Personality and Coping 234

Studying Personality in Aging and Older Adulthood 236

Approaches to Investigating Personality 236

Personality Over the Adult Years 236

How Is Personality Measured? 237

Self-Report Questionnaires 237

Projective Techniques 238

Behavioral Observation 238

Normative Models of Personality 239

Stage Models 239

Personality Dimensions and Traits 245

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 8.1: PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SURVIVAL 247

Lay Views of Personality 249

Individual Differences in Coping and Adjustment 253

Self-Concept 253

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 8.2: AGE AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING 254

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 8.1: POSSIBLE SELVES AND DAILY ACTIVITIES 257

Personal Control 258

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 262

Questions to Consider 263

Key Points 263

Key Terms 264

9 Social Interaction and Social Ties 265

Social Interaction in Older Adulthood 267

Activity Theory and Disengagement Theory 267

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory 268

Social Exchange Theory 269

Positive and Negative Aspects of Social Relationships 272

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 9.1: EMOTIONAL INTENSITY AND INTERPERSONAL EXCHANGES 272

Social Ties in Older Adulthood 273

Social Convoys, Social Networks, and Reciprocity 273

Family Relationships 276

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 9.1: COHABITATION AMONG OLDER COUPLES 280

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 9.2: INTERGENERATIONAL AMBIVALENCE 282

Nonfamilial Relationships 290

Elder Abuse and Neglect 292

Abuse in Domestic Settings 293

Abuse in Institutional Settings 295

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 295

Questions to Consider 296

Key Points 296

Key Terms 297

10 Employment, Retirement, and Living Arrangements 298

Employment 300

The Older Worker 300

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 10.1: OLDER WORKERS AND JOB STRAIN 302

Job Performance 302

Evaluating Older Employees 305

Age Discrimination in Employment 305

Retirement 307

What Is Retirement? 308

Eff ects of Retirement 309

Economics of Retirement 310

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 10.2: COUPLES AND RETIREMENT 310

Retirement as a Process 314

Life After Retirement 316

Living Arrangements 319

Stages in Long-Distance Migration 319

Aging in Place 320

Age-Segregated Living Arrangements 321

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 10.1: OLDER ADULTS’ EXPECTATIONS FOR LATE-LIFE MOVES 322

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 10.2: INNOVATIVE MODELS FOR LONG-TERM CARE 326

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 327

Questions to Consider 327

Key Points 328

Key Terms 328

11 Mental Health, Psychopathology, and Therapy 329

Mental Health in the Older Adult Population 331

Rate of Mental Disorders Among Older Adults 331

Older Adults and Mental Health Services 332

Psychopathology 333

Depression 333

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 11.1: SUICIDE AND THE GENDER PARADOX 339

Anxiety Disorders 339

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 11.2: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON SYMPTOMS OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION 340

Hypochondriasis 340

Paranoid Disorders 341

Alcoholism 342

Delirium 344

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 11.1: THE SUNDOWN SYNDROME 344

Dementia 345

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 11.3: DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES (DLB) 347

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 11.4: COGNITIVE RESERVE AND DEMENTIA 350

Therapeutic Interventions With Older Adults 353

Environmental Design and Sensory Retraining 353

Behavioral Interventions 354

Reality Orientation and Reminiscence Therapy 355

Pet Therapy 356

Individual Psychotherapy 357

Family Issues 357

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 358

Questions to Consider 359

Key Points 359

Key Terms 360

12 Coping with Death, Dying, and Bereavement 361

Death and Dying 363

The Dying Trajectory 364

End-of-Life Decisions 365

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 12.1: DESIRED LENGTH OF LIFE AND END-OF-LIFE DESIRES 367

Anxiety About Death 368

Stages of Death and Dying 369

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 12.1: COPING WITH THOUGHTS OF DEATH 370

Care of the Dying Patient 371

APPLYING RESEARCH BOX 12.2: PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE (PAS) 372

Bereavement and Loss 374

Attitudes Toward Death 374

Loss of a Spouse 375

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 12.2: WIDOWERS AND BEREAVEMENT 379

Loss of Other Meaningful Relationships 379

Revisiting the Selective Optimization with Compensation and Ecological Models 381

Questions to Consider 381

Key Points 381

Key Terms 382

13 Looking Ahead: Aging in the Future 383

Aging in the Future 385

The Third Age 385

The Fourth Age 388

Positive Aging 391

UNDERSTANDING AGING BOX 13.1: ADVICE FOR POSITIVE AGING 391

Questions to Consider 393

Key Points 393

Key Terms 393

Glossary 394

References 408

Index 442

"Aging and Older Adulthood also includes a helpful glossary and bibliography. For anyone working with the older population this title contains a wealth of information and factors to take account of and I would recommend it as a resource.”  (Inclusion News, 1 January 2013)