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Agricultural Medicine: Rural Occupational and Environmental Health, Safety, and Prevention, 2nd Edition

Agricultural Medicine: Rural Occupational and Environmental Health, Safety, and Prevention, 2nd Edition

Kelley J. Donham, Anders Thelin

ISBN: 978-1-118-64735-6 April 2016 Wiley-Blackwell 608 Pages

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Newly updated, Agricultural Medicine: Rural Occupational Health, Safety, and Prevention, Second Editionis a groundbreaking and comprehensive textbook and reference for students and practitioners of public health, and professionals in the field of rural agricultural occupational health and safety. The book introduces specific occupational and environmental health and safety issues faced by agricultural workers and rural residents, and provides a roadmap to establishing sustainable worker and public health support in agricultural communities.

Responding to reader demand, Agricultural Medicine, Second Edition now features more case studies, key point summaries, and new international perspective chapters comparing North American health and agricultural practices to those in Europe, the Asia Pacific, and South America.

Agricultural health and safety engages a multidisciplinary team of medical professionals, veterinarians, safety professionals, engineers, sociologists, epidemiologists, and psychologists, for whom this book serves as an essential resource.

About the Authors xiii

About the Reviewers xix

Preface xxv

1 Introduction and Overview 1
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

1.1 Introduction to the Professional Specialty of Agricultural Medicine (Agricultural Safety and Health) 1

1.2 Terminology and Definitions 1

1.3 What is an Agricultural Health and Safety Professional? 6

1.4 Training of Agricultural Health Practitioners and Agriculture Health and Safety Specialists 8

1.5 Demographics of the Agricultural Workforce 17

1.6 The Evolution of Production Agricultural, Workforce, and Types of Farms 18

1.7 Other Occupations Exposed to the Agricultural Environment 21

1.8 General Health Status of the Agricultural Population 21

1.9 Occupational Health Status of the Agricultural Workforce 22

1.10 Occupational Injury and Illness Statistics 23

1.11 Persistent and Emerging Megatrends in Agriculture: Health—Safety Implications 24

1.12 A Preview of Specific Occupational Health and Safety Risks and Conditions 31

1.13 Summary 35

References 37

2 Special Risk Populations in Agricultural Communities 43
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Women in Agriculture 44

2.3 Youths in Agriculture 49

2.4 Elderly Farmers 59

2.5 Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers 64

2.6 Old‐order Anabaptists 73

References 84

3 Agricultural Respiratory Diseases 95
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

3.1 Introduction and Overview 95

3.2 Agricultural Structures and Respiratory Hazards 98

3.3 Agricultural Dusts 111

3.4 Confined Animal Feeding Operations and Respiratory Disease Hazards 126

3.5 Oxides of Nitrogen (“Silo Gas”) 136

3.6 Applied Agricultural Chemicals 140

3.7 Zoonotic Infections Causing Respiratory Disease 142

3.8 General Preventive Measures for Agricultural Respiratory Illnesses 143

References 149

4 Agricultural Skin Diseases 155
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

4.1 Introduction 155

4.2 Contact Dermatitis 156

4.3 Clinical Picture of Contact Dermatitis 156

4.4 Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Contact Dermatitis 156

4.5 Agents causing Contact Dermatitis in Agricultural Settings 157

4.6 Infectious Dermatitis 165

4.7 Arthropod‐induced Dermatitis 167

4.8 Sunlight‐induced Dermatoses 171

4.9 Skin Disorders Related to Heat, Cold, and Humidity 176

References 177

5 Cancer in Agricultural Populations 181
Kelley J. Donham

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Summary 198

References 200

6 Health Effects of Agricultural Pesticides 205
Kelley J. Donham

6.1 Introduction 205

6.2 Definition of Pesticides 206

6.3 History and Risk Communication 207

6.4 Pesticides: Classes, Subclasses, and Relative Toxicity 208

6.5 How Farmers, Agricultural Workers, and Agriculture‐associated Workers are Exposed to Pesticides 209

6.6 The Risk of Pesticide Poisonings 214

6.7 Insecticides: Usage, Acute Toxicity Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment 215

6.8 Herbicides: Usage, Acute Toxic Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment 227

6.9 Fumigants: Usage, Acute Toxic Mechanisms and Treatment 233

6.10 Chronic Health Effects of Insecticides, Herbicides, and Fumigants 237

6.11 General Strategies for the Prevention of Pesticide Poisoning 238

6.12 Summary 243

References 246

7 General Environmental Hazards in Agriculture Communities 251
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

7.1 Introduction 251

7.2 Water Quality 252

7.3 Substance Sources and Health Effects of Water Pollution from Agricultural Operations 255

7.4 Prevention of the Adverse Health Effects of Water Pollution 265

7.5 Air Quality in Rural Agricultural Environments 269

7.6 Solid Waste Concerns in Rural Agricultural Areas 276

7.7 Animal Feeding Operations 278

7.8 Global Climate Change: Effects on Agricultural Production and the Environment 282

References 284

8 Musculoskeletal Disorders 293
Anders Thelin and Kelley J. Donham

8.1 Introduction 293

8.2 Chronic Pain Conditions 294

8.3 Injuries of the Neck 297

8.4 Injuries of the Spine 299

8.5 Injuries of the Shoulder 304

8.6 Injuries of the Elbow, Wrist, and Hand 307

8.7 Injuries of the Hip 311

8.8 Injuries of the Knee, Ankle, and Foot 313

8.9 General Disorders, Infections, and Reactive Arthritis 315

8.10 Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders 316

8.11 Summary 316

References 317

9 Physical Factors 327
Anders Thelin and Kelley J. Donham

Noise and Hearing Loss 327

9.1 Introduction 327

9.2 Noise, Definitions, and Measurements 328

9.3 How noise affects the auditory system 329

9.4 Symptoms and Disablement 330

9.5 Tinnitus 331

9.6 Hearing Loss due to Trauma or Toxins 331

9.7 Audiometry 331

9.8 Other Effects of Noise 333

9.9 Prevention 333

Vibration and Injuries Related to Vibration 336

9.10 Introduction 336

9.11 Hand–arm Vibration Syndrome 336

9.12 Whole‐body Vibration 339

9.13 Disorders due to Heat and Cold 339

9.14 Human Thermal Balance 339

9.15 Disorders due to Heat 341

9.16 Disorders Related to Cold 343

9.17 Climate and Physical and Mental Capability 344

9.18 Prevention of Injuries Related to Heat and Cold 344

9.19 Summary 345

References 347

10 Psychosocial Conditions in Agriculture 351
Anders Thelin and Kelley J. Donham

10.1 Introduction and Background 351

10.2 Stress and Stress‐related Health Disorders 353

10.3 Stress Physiology 356

10.4 Chronic Stress‐related Physiological Reactions 359

10.5 Stress and Disease 360

10.6 Measuring Stress 362

10.7 Management and Prevention of Stress Reactions 364

10.8 Alcohol‐related Health Problems 367

10.9 Suicides and Suicide Prevention 369

10.10 Summary 370

References 370

11 Acute Injuries in Agriculture 379
Kelley J. Donham Aaron Yoder and LaMar Grafft

11.1 Introduction 379

11.2 Agricultural Injury Statistics and Epidemiology 379

11.3 Medical Considerations of Acute Agricultural Injuries 385

11.4 First on the Scene/First Aid 386

11.5 First Responders and Emergency Medical Treatment, Rescue/Extrication, and Transport 388

11.6 Emergency Room 391

11.7 Primary Care 392

11.8 Secondary/Tertiary Care 393

11.9 Rehabilitation 393

11.10 Hazards and Injury Scenarios 394

11.11 Summary 408

References 409

12 Veterinary Pharmaceuticals: Potential Occupational and Community Health Hazards 413
Kelley J. Donham

12.1 Introduction 413

12.2 Background and Overview 413

12.3 Veterinary Biologicals 415

12.4 Antibiotics 418

12.5 Hormones used for Growth Promotion 427

12.6 Other Growth Promotors 429

12.7 Hormones used in Veterinary Obstetrics 429

12.8 Other Human Health Considerations of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals 430

12.9 Summary 430

References 432

13 Zoonotic Diseases: Overview of Occupational Hazards in Agriculture 437
Kelley J. Donham

13.1 Introduction 437

13.2 Significance of Zoonotic Disease 438

13.3 Forces Affecting Trends and Patterns of Zoonoses 438

13.4 Historical Trends in Zoonoses 441

13.5 Future Trends in Zoonoses 441

13.6 General Epidemiologic Considerations of Zoonoses 442

13.7 Classification of Zoonotic Infections 442

13.8 Prevention 444

13.9 Summary 444

References 462

14 International Agricultural Safety and Health 465
Kelley J. Donham

14.1 Introduction 465

Section A Agricultural Medicine in South America – The Mercosur 4: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay 466
Marcos Grigioni and Kelley J. Donham

14.1A Introduction 466

14.2A Types of Production and Processes 466

14.3A Culture and Demographics 470

14.4A The Demography of those Engaged in Agricultural Production 471

14.5A Agricultural Injury and Illness Statistics: the Current Status of the Health and Safety of Agricultural Populations 473

14.6A Support Professionals in Agriculture 475

14.7A Injuries and Illnesses in Farming Populations: Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil 475

14.8A Resources and Organizations in the M4 477

14.9A Special/unique Illness or Injury Conditions 478

14.10A Summary 480

References 483

Section B Agricultural Medicine in Australia and New Zealand 487
Susan Brumby

14.1B Introduction 487

14.2B Differences in Types of Agricultural Systems 488

14.3B Working Characteristics 488

14.4B Agricultural Injuries and Illnesses 489

14.5B Occupational Health and Safety Legislation 489

14.6B Skin Cancer 491

14.7B Agricultural Health and Safety Resources 491

14.8B Conclusion 492

References 493

Section C Agricultural Medicine in: The European Community 495
Christina Lunner Kolstrup and Peter Lundqvist

14.1C Introduction 495

14.2C Diversification of Agricultural Production in Europe 495

14.3C Differences in Types of Commodity Production and Processes Relative to North America 496

14.4C Differences in the Culture of the Workers 497

14.5C Differences in Agricultural Injury and Illness Statistics 498

14.6C Differences in Health and Safety Regulations 499

14.7C Differences in Resources for Agricultural Medicine 500

14.8C Special/unique Agricultural Illness or Injury Conditions 500

References 501

15 Prevention of Illness and Injury in Agriculture 503
Kelley J. Donham

15.1 Introduction 503

15.2 Barriers to Prevention Intervention 504

15.3 A Hierarchy of Prevention Modalities 507

15.4 Specialized Health and Safety Disciplines 519

15.5 Multimodal Interventions 525

15.6 Respiratory Disease Prevention in Swine Confinement Workers 526

15.7 Sustainable Farm Families in Australia 528

15.8 Farm‐based Wellness Program 528

15.9 Developing Comprehensive Prevention Programs 528

15.10 Iowa Model of Integrated Multimodal Prevention Interventions 528

15.11 Education to Facilitate Behavior Change 529

15.12 Removal of Farm Health and Safety Hazards 530

15.13 Development of Total Worker Health 530

15.14 Summary 530

Appendix A 532

References 545

Index 551

"This book should be on the shelf at every hospital and county health department in agricultural communities, and at every referral center that receives patients from these communities...Chapter 1 presents a superlative overview of the broad topic of agricultural medicine... This chapter is a must-read—indeed, should be required reading in medical schools...There are other features of this volume that enhance its value. It is well referenced...amply illustrated...Prevention is a theme throughout the book...its emphasis is farmer occupational safety. Offering a global perspective, its relevance is not limited to health care professionals in North America or Europe. The presentation is eminently practical, typified by the instructions on assembling an agricultural first aid kit...Health conditions of significance to farm workers are discussed at suitable length: not too concise, not too detailed." (Family Medicine June 2017)