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Alginates: Applications in the Biomedical and Food Industries

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Alginates: Applications in the Biomedical and Food Industries

Shakeel Ahmed (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-48797-5 February 2019 336 Pages

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Description

Alginate is a hydrophilic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and relatively economical polymer generally found in marine brown algae. The modification in the alginate molecule after polymerization has shown strong potential in biomedical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications such as wound dressing, drug delivery, dental treatment, in cell culture and tissue engineering. Besides this, alginates have industrial applications too in the paper and food industries as plasticizers and additives.

The few books that have been published on alginates focus more on their biology. This current book focuses on the exploration of alginates and their modification, characterization, derivatives, composites, hydrogels as well as the new and emerging applications.

Preface xv

Part 1: Alginates—Introduction, Characterization and Properties 1

1 Alginates: General Introduction and Properties 3
Rutika Sehgal, Akshita Mehta and Reena Gupta

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 History 4

1.3 Structure 4

1.4 Alginates and Their Properties 6

1.4.1 Gel Formation 6

1.4.1.1 Ionic Alginate Gels 6

1.4.1.2 Alginic Acid Gels 8

1.4.2 Molecular Weight 8

1.4.3 Solubility and Viscosity 8

1.4.4 Ionic Cross-Linking 9

1.4.5 Chemical Properties 9

1.5 Sources 11

1.6 Biosynthesis of Bacterial Alginate 11

1.6.1 Precursor Synthesis 12

1.6.2 Polymerization and Cytoplasmic Membrane Transfer 13

1.6.3 Periplasmic Transfer and Modification 15

1.6.3.1 Transacetylases 15

1.6.3.2 Mannuronan C 5-Epimerases 16

1.6.3.3 Lyases 16

1.6.5 Export through the Outer Membrane 16

1.7 Conclusion 16

Acknowledgment 17

Conflict of Interests 17

References 17

2 Alginates Production, Characterization and Modification 21
Pintu Pandit, T. N. Gayatri and Baburaj Regubalan

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Alginate: Production 24

2.2.1 Screening of Alginate-Producing Microbes 24

2.2.2 Production of Alginate by Bacteria 25

2.2.3 Production of Alginate by Pseudomonas 26

2.2.4 Production of Alginate by Azotobacter spp. 26

2.2.5 Influence of Medium Components 26

2.2.5.1 Effect of Nutrients on Bacterial Alginate Production 26

2.2.5.2 Effect of Phosphate on Bacterial Alginate Production 27

2.2.5.3 Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Bacterial Alginate Production 27

2.2.5.4 Effect of Agitation in the Medium for the Production of Alginate 27

2.2.6 Commercial Production of Alginate 28

2.3 Characterization of Physicochemical Properties of Alginate 28

2.3.1 Composition of Alginate Polymer Chains 29

2.3.2 XRD, FTIR, and NMR Spectroscopy for Alginate Structure Analysis 31

2.3.3 Rheology and Mechanical Characterization of Alginate Gels and Solutions 32

2.4 Modification of Alginates 33

2.4.1 Chemical Modification 33

2.4.2 Oxidation 34

2.4.3 Sulfation 34

2.4.4 Phosphorylation 35

2.4.5 Graft Copolymerization 35

2.4.6 Esterification 35

2.4.7 Carbodiimide Coupling 36

2.4.8 Covalent Cross-Linking 36

2.5 Future Perspectives 38

2.6 Conclusions 39

References 39

3 Alginate: Recent Progress and Technological Prospects 45
Tanvir Arfin and Kamini Sonawane

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Structure 46

3.3 Sources 47

3.4 Characteristics of Alginate Salts 48

3.5 Properties 48

3.6 Applications 50

3.7 Future Perspectives 53

3.8 Advantages 54

3.9 Disadvantages 54

3.10 Conclusion 54

Acknowledgments 55

References 55

4 Alginate Hydrogel and Aerogel 59
Ajith James Jose, Kavya Mohan and Alice Vavachan

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Alginate Hydrogel 60

4.2.1 Preparation of Alginate Hydrogels 61

4.2.1.1 Ionic Cross-Linking 62

4.2.1.2 Covalent Cross-Linking 62

4.2.1.3 Thermal Gelation 62

4.2.1.4 Cell Cross-Linking 63

4.2.2 Biomedical Applications 63

4.2.2.1 Pharmaceutical Applications 63

4.2.3 Tissue Regeneration with Protein and Cell Delivery 68

4.2.3.1 Blood Vessels 68

4.2.3.2 Bones 69

4.2.3.3 Cartilage 69

4.2.3.4 Muscle, Nerve, Pancreas, and Liver 70

4.3 Alginate Aerogel 70

4.3.1 Properties of Alginate Aerogels 71

4.3.1.1 Bulk Density and Pore Volume 71

4.3.1.2 Specific Surface Area 71

4.3.1.3 Compressibility 71

4.3.1.4 Thermal Conductivity and Absorption 72

4.3.2 Preparative Methods 72

4.4 Future Perspectives 73

References 73

Part 2: Alginates in Biomedical Applications 79

5 Alginate in Biomedical Applications 81
Luiz Pereira da Costa

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Chemical Structure and Properties of Alginate 83

5.3 Types of Interaction of Alginate 84

5.4 Biomedical Application of Alginates 87

5.5 Future Perspective of the Use and Biomedical Applications 90

References 90

6 Alginates in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Application: A Critique 95
Vivek Dave, Kajal Tak, Chavi Gupta, Kanika Verma and Swapnil Sharma

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Structure of Alginate 96

6.3 Different Types of Alginates Used in Pharmaceutical Industries 97

6.4 Properties of Alginate 98

6.5 Pathway for the Biosynthesis of Alginate 98

6.6 Regulatory Consideration of Alginate 100

6.7 Applications 100

6.7.1 Other Applications 113

6.8 Conclusion 114

References 115

7 Alginates in Evolution of Restorative Dentistry 125
S.C. Onwubu, P.S. Mdluli, S. Singh and Y. Ngombane

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Method of Alginate Extraction 126

7.3 Evolution of Alginate in Restorative Dentistry 128

7.3.1 Problems with Conventional Alginate 129

7.3.2 Current Trends and Modification of Alginate 129

7.3.2.1 Extended Pour Time Alginate 130

7.3.2.2 Dust-Free Alginates 130

7.3.2.3 Infection-Free Alginates 132

7.3.2.4 High Viscosity Alginates 132

7.3.2.5 Alginates in Two Pastes Form 133

7.3.2.6 Tray Adhesive Alginates 133

7.4 The Art of Impression Taking Using Alginates 133

7.4.1 Selection of Impression Trays 134

7.4.2 Mixing and Loading Alginates 135

7.4.3 Preparation of the Oral Cavity before Impression Taking 135

7.4.4 Impression Taking Using Alginate Material 136

7.4.5 Removal and Inspection of Alginate Material 137

7.4.6 Effects of Cast Production Techniques 137

7.5 Conclusions 138

References 138

8 Alginates in Drug Delivery 141
Srijita Basumallick

8.1 Introduction 141

8.2 Chemistry of Alginates 142

8.2.1 Hydrogel Formation by Alginates 143

8.2.1.1 Preparation of Hydrogel 143

8.3 Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Chemistry of Alginates 144

8.3.1 Factors Governing Drug Encapsulation and Drug Delivery Processes 145

8.3.1.1 Delivery and Encapsulation of Small Drugs 145

8.3.1.2 Macromolecular Drug Delivery by Alginates 148

8.4 Conclusions 149

Acknowledgments 149

References 149

9 Alginate in Wound Care 153
Satyaranjan Bairagi and S. Wazed Ali

9.1 Introduction 154

9.2 Sources and Synthesis of Alginate 154

9.3 Physicochemical Properties of the Alginate Biopolymer 156

9.4 Biomedical Applications of Alginate 157

9.4.1 Alginate in Wound Care 158

9.4.1.1 Pure Alginate Polymer-Based Wound Dressing 160

9.4.1.2 Intercellular Mediators Incorporated Alginate Polymer-Based Wound Dressing 160

9.4.1.3 Zinc/Alginate- and Silver/Alginate-Based Wound Dressing 161

9.4.1.4 Chitosan/Alginate- and Collagen/Alginate-Based Wound Dressing 163

9.4.1.5 Alginate Fiber-Based Wound Dressing 163

9.4.1.6 Alginate Hydrogel-Based Wound Dressing 167

9.5 Opportunities and Future Thrust 172

References 173

10 Alginate-Based Biomaterials for Bio-Medical Applications 179
Reena Antil, Ritu Hooda, Minakshi Sharm and Pushpa Dahiya

10.1 Introduction 180

10.2 Alginate: General Properties 180

10.2.1 Chemical Properties, Structure, and Characterization 181

10.3 Extraction and Preparation 182

10.3.1 Gelation and Cross-Linking of Alginate 183

10.3.2 Ionic Cross-Linking 184

10.3.3 External Gelation 184

10.3.4 Internal Gelation 185

10.3.5 Covalent Cross-Linking 185

10.3.6 Large Bead Preparation 186

10.3.7 Microbead Preparation 186

10.4 Alginate Hydrogels 187

10.5 Photocross-Linking 188

10.6 Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffolds 188

10.7 Biodegradation of Alginate 189

10.8 Biomedical Application of Alginates 190

10.8.1 Controlled Chemical and Protein Drug Delivery 190

10.8.2 Wound/Injury Dressings 193

10.8.3 Cell Culture 194

10.8.4 Tissue Regeneration 195

References 196

Part 3: Alginates in Food Industry 205

11 Alginates for Food Packaging Applications 207
Radhika Theagarajan, Sayantani Dutta, J.A. Moses and C. Anandharamakrishnan

11.1 Introduction 207

11.2 Biopolymer in Food Industry 208

11.3 Alginates in Food Packaging 209

11.4 Biosynthesis of Alginate 213

11.5 Application of Alginate in Formation of Biofilm 215

11.5.1 Preparation of Packaging Films 215

11.5.2 Role of Alginate in Biofilm Formation 215

11.6 Packaging Properties of Alginate 217

11.6.1 Thermostability of Alginate Packaging 218

11.6.2 Water Solubility 218

11.6.3 Water Vapor Permeability 218

11.6.4 Tensile Strength 218

11.6.5 Oxygen Permeability 219

11.6.6 Barrier Property 219

11.6.7 Antimicrobial Activity 219

11.7 Effect of Alginate on the Quality of Food 222

11.8 Interaction between Food and Alginates 223

11.9 Environmental Effects on Alginate Packaging 224

11.10 Market Outlook 224

11.11 Conclusion 225

References 226

12 Potential Application of Alginates in the Beverage Industry 233
S. Vijayalakshmi, S.K. Sivakamasundari, J.A. Moses and C. Anandharamakrishnan

12.1 Introduction 233

12.2 Alginate Source 234

12.3 Extraction of Alginates 235

12.4 Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Alginate 236

12.5 Uses as a Food Additive/Ingredient 241

12.6 Alginate as Stabilizer 245

12.7 As Encapsulating Wall Material 247

12.7.1 Immobilization of Biocatalysts 249

12.7.2 Probiotics 250

12.7.3 Improvement of the Alginate Encapsulation: Prebiotics Addition 253

12.8 Conclusion 254

References 254

13 Alginates in Comestibles 263
Ashwini Ravi, S. Vijayanand, Velu Rajeshkannan, S. Aisverya, K. Sangeetha, P.N. Sudha and J. Hemapriya

13.1 Introduction 264

13.2 Alginates in Agricultural Marketing 265

13.3 Use of Alginates in Food Industry 266

13.3.1 Thickeners and Gelling Agents 267

13.3.2 Stabilizers and Emulsifiers 268

13.3.3 Texturizers 269

13.3.4 Encapsulation 269

13.3.5 Food Coating 270

13.4 Use of Alginates for Pets 271

13.5 Effect of Dietary Alginates 271

13.6 Alginate Safety 272

13.7 Conclusion 272

References 272

Part 4: Alginates Future Prospects 281

14 Alginates: Current Uses and Future Perspective 283
Ashwini Ravi, S. Vijayanand, G. Ramya, A. Shyamala, Velu Rajeshkannan, S. Aisverya, P.N. Sudha and J. Hemapriya

14.1 Introduction 284

14.2 Sources of Alginate Synthesis 285

14.2.1 Brown Seaweeds 285

14.2.2 Bacteria 287

14.3 Synthesis of Alginate 288

14.3.1 Alginate Biosynthesis Gene 289

14.4 Properties of Alginates 290

14.4.1 Molecular Weight 290

14.4.2 Solubility 291

14.4.3 Stability 291

14.4.4 Ionic Binding Property 292

14.4.5 Gel Formation Ability 293

14.4.6 Biological Properties 293

14.5 Application of Alginates 294

14.6 Future Perspectives of Alginates 295

14.6.1 3D-Based Cell Culture Systems 295

14.6.2 Impressions 296

14.6.3 Cell-Based Microparticles 296

14.6.4 Alginate Oligosaccharides 298

14.6.5 Drug Targeting 299

14.6.6 Nanoparticulate Systems 300

14.7 Conclusion 300

References 300

Index 313