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Amazonia and Global Change

Michael Keller (Editor), Mercedes Bustamante (Editor), John Gash (Editor), Pedro Silva Dias (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-67151-1 May 2013 American Geophysical Union 565 Pages


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 186.

Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as
  • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis
  • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle
  • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments
  • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere
  • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere
  • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching.

The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

John Gash, Michael Keller, Mercedes Bustamante, and Pedro Silva Dias ix

Section I: People and Land Change

People and Environment in Amazonia: The LBA Experience and Other Perspectives
M. Batistella, D. S. Alves, E. F. Moran, C. Souza Jr., R. Walker, and S. Walsh 1

The Changing Rates and Patterns of Deforestation and Land Use in Brazilian Amazonia
Diogenes S. Alves, Douglas C. Morton, Mateus Batistella, Dar A. Roberts, and Carlos Souza Jr 11

Selective Logging and Its Relation to Deforestation
Gregory P. Asner, Michael Keller, Marco Lentini, Frank Merry, and Carlos Souza Jr 25

The Spatial Distribution and Interannual Variability of Fire in Amazonia
Wilfrid Schroeder, Ane Alencar, Eugenio Arima, and Alberto Setzer 43

The Expansion of Intensive Agriculture and Ranching in Brazilian Amazonia
Robert Walker, Ruth DeFries, Maria del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Yosio Shimabukuro, and Adriano Venturieri 61

Scenarios of Future Amazonian Landscapes: Econometric and Dynamic Simulation Models
Stephen Perz, Joseph P. Messina, Eustaquio Reis, Robert Walker, and Stephen J. Walsh 83

Road Impacts in Brazilian Amazonia
Alexander Pfaff, Alisson Barbieri, Thomas Ludewigs, Frank Merry, Stephen Perz, and Eustaquio Reis 101

Small Farmers and Deforestation in Amazonia
Eduardo S. Brondízio, Anthony Cak, Marcellus M. Caldas, Carlos Mena, Richard Bilsborrow, Celia T. Futemma, Thomas Ludewigs, Emilio F. Moran, and Mateus Batistella 117

Section II: Atmosphere and Climate

Understanding the Climate of Amazonia: Progress From LBA
Carlos A. Nobre, José A. Marengo, and Paulo Artaxo 145

Characteristics of Amazonian Climate: Main Features
Carlos A. Nobre, Guillermo O. Obregón, José A. Marengo, Rong Fu, and German Poveda 149

The Amazonian Boundary Layer and Mesoscale Circulations
A. K. Betts, G. Fisch, C. von Randow, M. A. F. Silva Dias, J. C. P. Cohen, R. da Silva, and D. R. Fitzjarrald 163

Natural Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From Plants and Their Roles in Oxidant Balance and Particle Formation
Jürgen Kesselmeier, Alex Guenther, Thorsten Hoffmann, Maria Teresa Piedade, and Jörg Warnke 183

Biomass Burning in Amazonia: Emissions, Long-Range Transport of Smoke and Its Regional and Remote Impacts
K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, M. O. Andreae, R. Yokelson, and P. Artaxo 207

Aerosol Particles in Amazonia: Their Composition, Role in the Radiation Balance, Cloud Formation, and Nutrient Cycles
Paulo Artaxo, Luciana V. Rizzo, Melina Paixão, Silvia de Lucca, Paulo H. Oliveira, Luciene L. Lara, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Meinrat O. Andreae, Brent Holben, Joel Schafer, Alexandre L. Correia, and Theotônio M. Pauliquevis 233

Modeling the Regional and Remote Climatic Impact of Deforestation
M. A. Silva Dias, R. Avissar, and P. Silva Dias 251

Humberto R. da Rocha, Antonio O. Manzi, and Jim Shuttleworth 261

Global Warming and Climate Change in Amazonia: Climate-Vegetation Feedback and Impacts on Water Resources
José Marengo, Carlos A. Nobre, Richard A. Betts, Peter M. Cox, Gilvan Sampaio, and Luis Salazar 273

Section III: Terrestrial Ecosystems

Biogeochemistry and Ecology of Terrestrial Ecosystems of Amazonia
Yadvinder Malhi and Eric A. Davidson 293

Nutrient Limitations to Secondary Forest Regrowth
Eric A. Davidson and Luiz A. Martinelli 299

The Maintenance of Soil Fertility in Amazonian Managed Systems
Flávio J. Luizão, Philip M. Fearnside, Carlos E. P. Cerri, and Johannes Lehmann 311

Sources and Sinks of Trace Gases in Amazonia and the Cerrado
M. M. C. Bustamante, M. Keller, and D. A. Silva 337

The Production, Storage, and Flow of Carbon in Amazonian Forests
Yadvinder Malhi, Sassan Saatchi, Cecile Girardin, and Luiz E. O. C. Aragão 355

Changes in Amazonian Forest Biomass, Dynamics, and Composition, 1980–2002
Oliver L. Phillips, Niro Higuchi, Simone Vieira, Timothy R. Baker, Kuo-Jung Chao, and Simon L. Lewis 373

Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes and Amazonian Forest Metabolism
Scott Saleska, Humberto da Rocha, Bart Kruijt, and Antonio Nobre 389

The Regional Carbon Budget
R. A. Houghton, Manuel Gloor, Jon Lloyd, and Christopher Potter 409

The Effects of Drought on Amazonian Rain Forests
P. Meir, P. M. Brando, D. Nepstad, S. Vasconcelos, A. C. L. Costa, E. Davidson, S. Almeida, R. A. Fisher, E. D. Sotta, D. Zarin, and G. Cardinot 429

Soil Carbon Dynamics
Susan Trumbore and Plínio Barbosa de Camargo 451

Ecophysiology of Forest and Savanna Vegetation
J. Lloyd, M. L. Goulden, J. P. Ometto, S. Patiño, N. M. Fyllas, and C. A. Quesada 463

Section IV: Surface Water

Surface Waters in Amazonia: Key Findings and Perspectives
John M. Melack, Reynaldo L. Victoria, and Javier Tomasella 485

The Role of Rivers in the Regional Carbon Balance
Jeffrey E. Richey, Alex V. Krusche, Mark S. Johnson, Hillandia B. da Cunha, and Maria V. Ballester 489

Water and Chemical Budgets at the Catchment Scale Including Nutrient Exports From Intact Forests and Disturbed Landscapes
Javier Tomasella, Christopher Neill, Ricardo Figueiredo, and Antonio D. Nobre 505

Floodplain Ecosystem Processes
John M. Melack, Evlyn M. L. M. Novo, Bruce R. Forsberg, Maria T. F. Piedade, and Laurence Maurice 525

Effects of Climatic Variability and Deforestation on Surface Water Regimes
Marcos Heil Costa, Michael T. Coe, and Jean Loup Guyot 543

Section V: Conclusions and Vision for the Future

Results From LBA and a Vision for Future Amazonian Research
M. Batistella, P. Artaxo, C. Nobre, M. Bustamante, and F. Luizão 555

Index 565