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Ammonia: Principles and Industrial Practice

Ammonia: Principles and Industrial Practice

Max Appl

ISBN: 978-3-527-61388-5

Dec 2007

310 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Ammonia is one of the most important inorganic basic chemicals, not only for the manufacture of fertilizers (85%) but also for the production of plastics, fibers, explosives, and intermediates for dyes and pharmaceuticals. It is an essential reaction component for the synthesis of numerous organic chemicals used as solvents and intermediates. The book provides a practical and up-to-date account of the product properties, synthesis and reaction mechanisms, including catalysis and commercial catalysts, modern production technology for different feedstocks, quality specifications and environmental health and safety aspects, uses and economic data of this important commodity chemical. It also discusses perspectives of future developments of commercial ammonia production. Over 1400 references to the relevant literature complete this concise presentation, whose aim is to inform the reader of the present status of the theory and practice of industrial ammonia production. Chemical engineers, engineers and chemists in industry, engineering companies, catalyst manufacturers, equipment makers and chemical engineering university departments will certainly profit from this comprehensive review based on the author's long practical experience in a leading technical management position of one of the largest European ammonia producers.
Occurrence and History
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE SYNTHESIS REACTION
Physical Properties of Ammonia
Thermodynamic Data of the Reaction
General Aspects
Mechanism of the Intrinsic Reaction
Kinetics
Catalysts
PROCESS STEPS OF AMMONIA PRODUCTION
Synthesis Gas Production
Carbon Monoxide Shift Conversion
Gas Purification
Compression
Synthesis
Waste Heat Boilers for High Pressure Steam Generation
COMPLETE AMMONIA PLANTS
Steam Reforming Ammonia Plants
Ammonia Plants Based on Partial Oxidation
MODERNIZING OF OLDER PLANTS (REVAMPING)
INTEGRATION OF OTHER PRODUCTIONS INTO AN AMMONIA PLANT
MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Hydrogen Attack
Nitriding
Temper Embrittlement
Metal Dusting
Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion
Stress Corrosion
STORAGE AND SHIPPING
Storage
Transportation
QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS AND ANALYSIS
ENVIRONMENTAL, SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS
Environmental Aspects of Ammonia Production and Handling
Safety Features
Health Aspects and Toxicity of Ammonia
CHEMICAL REACTION AND USE OF AMMONIA
Reactions of Ammonia
Uses of Ammonia
ECONOMIC ASPECTS
Capacity and Production
Feedstock Situation
Ammonia Plant Investment Costs
Other Production Cost Factors
Production Costs for Various Locations
FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Other Nitrogen Fixation Methods for the Future
Conclusions
References