# An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communications, 2nd Edition

# An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communications, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-43222-7

Jan 2006

540 pages

## Description

Simon Haykin has written two books with Wiley for Communications Systems, Introduction to Digital and Analog Communications, 2e and the forthcoming revision of his classic Communications Systems, 5e. The second edition of Introduction to Digital and Analog Communications, 2e is written at an accessible level and serves as an introductory treatment of communication theory, both ana-log and digital communications.Given the highly mathematical nature of communication theory, it is rather easy for the reader to lose sight of the practical side of communication systems. Throughout the book, the authors have made a special effort to move through the mathe-matical treatment at an easy-to-grasp level, and also to point out the practical relevance of the theory wherever it is appropri-ate to do so. Drs. Haykin’s other text, Communication Systems reaches out to a higher level of math rigor. Also, Introduction to Digital and Analog Communications, 2e offers the probability coverage later in the book (chapter 8) since probability theory is not critical to the understanding of modulation. This also contributes to the accessible approach of the text.

Introduction to Digital and Analog Communications, 2e is self-contained and suited for a one or two-semester course in communica-tion systems taken by Electrical Engineering juniors or seniors. The book offers flexibility for organizing the course material to suit the interests of course professors and students.

Reviewer Quotes:

My current textbook by Proakis/Salehi: Communication Systems Engineering, 2e did not meet my student’s capabilities and expecta-tions. The textbook is too complicated and overloaded with heavy mathematical equations. The material is not always logically presented. Not to mention, there is 800 pages of text. I was impressed with Haykin/Moher’s: Introduction to Digital and Analog Communications, 2e and the straightforward comprehensive material coverage of the basic principles of communication theory. Also, the text is logically written with easy to follow and understand mathematical equations and examples. Absolutely, I would like to use this textbook for my communications systems class as soon as it will be possible.” Andrei Pet-rov- Idaho State University

“ Overall, I found the concepts are clearly explained, the chapters are well motivated by their introductions, “Lessons to be learned” at the beginning of each chapter are particularly appealing, and concluded with well put summaries. A very well-written introductory text to grasp the basics of communication systems.” Aylin Yener-Penn State University

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**Chapter 1 Introduction 1**

1.1 Historical Background 1

1.2 Applications 4

1.3 Primary Resources and Operational Requirements 13

1.4 Underpinning Theories of Communication Systems 14

1.5 Concluding Remarks 16

**Chapter 2 Fourier Representation of Signals and Systems 18**

2.1 The Fourier Transform 19

2.2 Properties of the Fourier Transform 25

2.3 The Inverse Relationship Between Time and Frequency 39

2.4 Dirac Delta Function 42

2.5 Fourier Transforms of Periodic Signals 50

2.6 Transmission of Signals Through Linear Systems: Convolution Revisited 52

2.7 Ideal Low-pass Filters 60

2.8 Correlation and Spectral Density: Energy Signals 70

2.9 Power Spectral Density 79

2.10 Numerical Computation of the Fourier Transform 81

2.11 Theme Example: Twisted Pairs for Telephony 89

2.12 Summary and Discussion 90

Additional Problems 91

Advanced Problems 98

**Chapter 3 Amplitude Modulation 100**

3.1 Amplitude Modulation 101

3.2 Virtues, Limitations, and Modifications of Amplitude Modulation 113

3.3 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier Modulation 114

3.4 Costas Receiver 120

3.5 Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing 121

3.6 Single-Sideband Modulation 123

3.7 Vestigial Sideband Modulation 130

3.8 Baseband Representation of Modulated Waves and Band-Pass Filters 137

3.9 Theme Examples 142

3.10 Summary and Discussion 147

Additional Problems 148

Advanced Problems 150

**Chapter 4 Angle Modulation 152**

4.1 Basic Definitions 153

4.2 Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves 154

4.3 Relationship between PM and FM Waves 159

4.4 Narrow-Band Frequency Modulation 160

4.5 Wide-Band Frequency Modulation 164

4.6 Transmission Bandwidth of FM Waves 170

4.7 Generation of FM Waves 172

4.8 Demodulation of FM Signals 174

4.9 Theme Example: FM Stereo Multiplexing 182

4.10 Summary and Discussion 184

Additional Problems 185

Advanced Problems 187

**Chapter 5 Pulse Modulation: Transition from Analog to Digital Communications 190**

5.1 Sampling Process 191

5.2 Pulse-Amplitude Modulation 198

5.3 Pulse-Position Modulation 202

5.4 Completing the Transition from Analog to Digital 203

5.5 Quantization Process 205

5.6 Pulse-Code Modulation 206

5.7 Delta Modulation 211

5.8 Differential Pulse-Code Modulation 216

5.9 Line Codes 219

5.10 Theme Examples 220

5.11 Summary and Discussion 225

Additional Problems 226

Advanced Problems 228

**Chapter 6 Baseband Data Transmission 231**

6.1 Baseband Transmission of Digital Data 232

6.2 The Intersymbol Interference Problem 233

6.3 The Nyquist Channel 235

6.4 Raised-Cosine Pulse Spectrum 238

6.5 Baseband Transmission of M-ary Data 245

6.6 The Eye Pattern 246

6.7 Computer Experiment: Eye Diagrams for Binary and Quaternary Systems 249

6.8 Theme Example: Equalization 251

6.9 Summary and Discussion 256

Additional Problems 257

Advanced Problems 259

**Chapter 7 Digital Band-Pass Modulation Techniques 262**

7.1 Some Preliminaries 262

7.2 Binary Amplitude-Shift Keying 265

7.3 Phase-Shift Keying 270

7.4 Frequency-Shift Keying 281

7.5 Summary of Three Binary Signaling Schemes 289

7.6 Noncoherent Digital Modulation Schemes 291

7.7 M-ary Digital Modulation Schemes 295

7.8 Mapping of Digitally Modulated Waveforms onto Constellations of Signal Points 299

7.9 Theme Examples 302

7.10 Summary and Discussion 307

Additional Problems 309

Advanced Problems 310

Computer Experiments 312

**Chapter 8 Random Signals and Noise 313**

8.1 Probability and Random Variables 314

8.2 Expectation 326

8.3 Transformation of Random Variables 329

8.4 Gaussian Random Variables 330

8.5 The Central Limit Theorem 333

8.6 Random Processes 335

8.7 Correlation of Random Processes 338

8.8 Spectra of Random Signals 343

8.9 Gaussian Processes 347

8.10 White Noise 348

8.11 Narrowband Noise 352

8.12 Summary and Discussion 356

Additional Problems 357

Advanced Problems 361

Computer Experiments 363

**Chapter 9 Noise in Analog Communications 364**

9.1 Noise in Communication Systems 365

9.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratios 366

9.3 Band-Pass Receiver Structures 369

9.4 Noise in Linear Receivers Using Coherent Detection 370

9.5 Noise in AM Receivers Using Envelope Detection 373

9.6 Noise in SSB Receivers 377

9.7 Detection of Frequency Modulation (FM) 380

9.8 FM Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis 387

9.9 Summary and Discussion 390

Additional Problems 391

Advanced Problems 392

Computer Experiments 393

**Chapter 10 Noise in Digital Communications 394**

10.1 Bit Error Rate 395

10.2 Detection of a Single Pulse in Noise 396

10.3 Optimum Detection of Binary PAM in Noise 399

10.4 Optimum Detection of BPSK 405

10.5 Detection of QPSK and QAM in Noise 408

10.6 Optimum Detection of Binary FSK 414

10.7 Differential Detection in Noise 416

10.8 Summary of Digital Performance 418

10.9 Error Detection and Correction 422

10.10 Summary and Discussion 433

Additional Problems 434

Advanced Problems 435

Computer Experiments 436

**Chapter 11 System and Noise Calculations 437**

11.1 Electrical Noise 438

11.2 Noise Figure 442

11.3 Equivalent Noise Temperature 443

11.4 Cascade Connection of Two-Port Networks 445

11.5 Free-Space Link Calculations 446

11.6 Terrestrial Mobile Radio 451

11.7 Summary and Discussion 456

Additional Problems 457

Advanced Problems 458

APPENDIX 1 POWER RATIOS AND DECIBEL 459

APPENDIX 2 FOURIER SERIES 460

APPENDIX 3 BESSEL FUNCTIONS 467

APPENDIX 4 THE Q-FUNCTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE ERROR FUNCTION 470

APPENDIX 5 SCHWARZ’S INEQUALITY 473

APPENDIX 6 MATHEMATICAL TABLES 475

APPENDIX 7 MATLAB SCRIPTS FOR COMPUTER EXPERIMENTS TO PROBLEMS IN CHAPTERS 7-10 480

APPENDIX 8 ANSWERS TO DRILL PROBLEMS 488

GLOSSARY 495

BIBLIOGRAPHY 498

INDEX 501

· “Lessons to be Learned” at the beginning of each chapter.

· Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to analog communications, with Chapter 3 covering amplitude modulation and Chapter 4 covering angle modulation. In the previous edition they were covered later and also in one chapter (chapter 7).

· Chapter 5 on pulse modulation covers the concepts pertaining to the transition from analog to digital communica-tions.

· Chapters 6 & 7 are devoted to digital communications, with Chapter 6 covering Baseband data transmission and Chapter 7 covering band-pass data transmission.

· Chapter 8 – Random Signals and Noise starts are coverage of probability theory

· New Chapter 10, in many ways brings material covered in Chapters 2-9 into practical context by discussing the impor-tant transmission media that form the backbone of communication systems like transmission lines, optical fiber, mul-tiplexing signals on wired systems, radio systems and terrestrial propagation.

· Robust problems sets, examples, and exercises.

· In addition to the problem sets, exercises are presented to students to help improve their understanding of the mate-rial covered in the chapter. The answers to the exercises are given at the end of the book.

· Abundance of examples: Numerous examples, worked out in detail, are included to help students develop an intuitive grasp of the theory.

· MATLAB experiments.

· Appendices to the book include power ratio and the decibel, Fourier series, Bessel functions, Error function, and an assortment of mathematical tables.