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An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation: Techniques and Applications, 2nd Edition

An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation: Techniques and Applications, 2nd Edition

Philip Willmott PhD

ISBN: 978-1-119-28039-2 April 2019 544 Pages

 Paperback

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$125.00

Description

The updated guide to the fundamental concepts, techniques and applications of synchrotron radiation and its applications in this rapidly developing field 

Synchrotron light is recognized as an invaluable research tool by a broad spectrum of scientists, ranging from physicists to biologists and archaeologists. The comprehensively revised second edition of An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation offers a guide to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter and the application of synchrotron light in x-ray scattering, spectroscopy, and imaging.

The author, a noted expert in the field, reviews the fundamentals of important experimental methods, and explores the most recent technological advances in both the latest generation of x-ray sources and x-ray instrumentation. Designed to be an accessible resource, the book contains full-colour illustrations of the underlying physics and experimental applications, as well as the most commonly-used synchrotron techniques. In particular, the updated second edition now includes:

  • In-depth descriptions of the latest x-ray-source technologies, notably diffraction-limited storage rings and x-ray free-electron lasers
  • The latest advances in instrumentation, x-ray optics, and experimental methods in synchrotron radiation
  • The most recent developments in macromolecular crystallography, time-resolved studies, and imaging techniques
  • A comprehensive set of problems for each chapter, plus their ideal solutions in the appendices.

Written for undergraduate and postgraduate students from all areas of the natural and physical sciences, An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation, Second Edition is an invaluable up-to-date reference source in this highly multidisciplinary field. 

First Edition Preface

Second Edition Preface

Acknowledgement

About the companion website

1 Introduction 1

1.1 A Potted History of X-rays 7

1.2 Synchrotron Sources over the Last Seventy Years 16

2 The interaction of x-rays with matter 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 The electromagnetic spectrum 22

2.3 Compton scattering 24

2.4 Thomson scattering 27

2.5 Atomic scattering factors 29

2.5.1 Scattering from a cloud of free electrons 29

2.5.2 Correction terms for the atomic scattering factor 33

2.6 The refractive index, reflection, and photoabsorption 36

2.6.1 The refractive index 36

2.6.2 Refraction and reflection 37

2.6.3 Photoabsorption 44

2.7 X-ray fluorescence and Auger emission 49

2.7.1 X-ray fluorescence 50

2.7.2 Auger emission 53

2.7.3 Fluorescence or Auger? 54

2.8 Concluding remarks 55

3 Synchrotron physics 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Overview 61

3.3 Production of light by acceleration of charged particles 66

3.4 Forces acting on a charged particle by electromagnetic radiation 68

3.5 Radiation from relativistic electrons 70

3.5.1 Synchrotron radiation 70

3.5.2 Bremsstrahlung 74

3.5.3 Magnetic deflection fields 76

3.5.4 Radiated power loss in synchrotrons 78

3.6 Radio-frequency power supply and bunching 79

3.7 Photon-beam properties 83

3.7.1 Flux and brilliance 83

3.7.2 Emittance, radiation equilibrium, and quantum excitation 84

3.7.3 Coherence 88

3.7.4 Polarization of synchrotron radiation 92

3.8 The magnet lattice 93

3.8.1 Bending magnets and superbends 94

3.8.2 Betatron oscillations and the dynamic aperture 97

3.8.3 Quadrupole- and sextupole magnets 98

3.8.4 Orbit control and feedbacks 100

3.8.5 Multiple-bend achromats and DLSRs 100

3.9 Insertion devices 107

3.9.1 Wigglers 108

3.9.2 Damping wigglers 109

3.9.3 Undulators 111

3.9.4 Undulators at DLSRs 120

3.9.5 Echo-enabled harmonic generation at DLSRs 122

3.9.6 Control of polarization using undulators 125

3.10 Concluding remarks 126

4 Free-electron lasers 131

4.1 Introduction 131

4.2 XFEL architecture 135

4.3 The SASE process 137

4.4 Properties of XFEL beams 144

4.4.1 Tuning the photon energy 144

4.4.2 Source fluctuations 145

4.4.3 Degree of monochromacity 145

4.5 Seeding 145

4.5.1 High-brilliance SASE using an array of short undulators and chicanes 147

4.5.2 Self-seeding of hard XFEL-radiation using diamond monochromatization 148

4.6 Radiation damage and heat loads 149

4.6.1 Thermal loads on optics 149

4.6.2 Sample irradiation 151

4.7 XFELs and THz radiation 152

4.8 Concluding remarks 153

5 Beamlines 157

5.1 Introduction 157

5.2 Front end 157

5.2.1 X-ray beam-position monitors 157

5.2.2 Primary aperture and front-end slits 159

5.2.3 Low-energy filters 160

5.3 Basics of x-ray optics 161

5.3.1 Ray optics 161

5.3.2 Spherical surfaces and aberrations 164

5.3.3 Wave optics 166

5.4 Primary optics 171

5.4.1 X-ray mirrors 172

5.4.2 Monochromators 177

5.4.3 Higher harmonics 189

5.4.4 Double-crystal deflectors 193

5.5 Microfocus and nanofocus optics 195

5.5.1 Lens types 195

5.6 Beam-intensity monitors 204

5.7 Detectors 206

5.7.1 Sources of noise in detectors 206

5.7.2 Photographic plates 209

5.7.3 Scintillator detectors 209

5.7.4 The point-spread function 210

5.7.5 Crystal analyzers 212

5.7.6 Image plates 214

5.7.7 Charge-coupled devices 214

5.7.8 Pixel and microstrip detectors 216

5.7.9 To integrate or to count? 220

5.7.10 Energy-dispersive detectors 223

5.8 Time-resolved experiments 228

5.8.1 Streak cameras 229

5.8.2 X-ray streaking at XFELs 230

5.9 Concluding remarks 232

6 Scattering techniques 237

6.1 Introduction 237

6.2 Diffraction at synchrotron sources 239

6.3 Description of crystals 241

6.3.1 Lattices and bases 241

6.3.2 Crystal planes 243

6.3.3 Labelling crystallographic planes and axes 246

6.4 Basic tenets of x-ray diffraction 246

6.4.1 Introduction 246

6.4.2 The Bragg law and reciprocal lattice 249

6.4.3 The influence of the basis 252

6.4.4 Dynamical diffraction 255

6.5 Diffraction and the convolution theorem 257

6.5.1 The convolution theorem 257

6.5.2 Understanding the structure factor 259

6.6 The phase problem and anomalous diffraction 260

6.6.1 Introduction 260

6.6.2 The Patterson map 261

6.6.3 Friedel’s law and Bijvoet mates 263

6.6.4 Anomalous diffraction 263

6.6.5 Direct methods 269

6.7 Types of crystalline samples 272

6.8 Single crystal diffraction 274

6.8.1 Laue diffraction 274

6.8.2 Single crystal diffraction with monochromatic x-rays 276

6.9 Textured samples 279

6.10 Powder diffraction 280

6.10.1 Introduction 280

6.10.2 Basics of powder diffraction 281

6.10.3 The pair-distribution function 283

6.11 Macromolecular crystallography 285

6.11.1 Introduction 285

6.11.2 Geometries and photon energies used in MX 292

6.11.3 Opportunities for MX at DLSRs 295

6.11.4 Solving the phase problem in MX 297

6.11.5 MX studies at XFELs 314

6.12 Surface diffraction 318

6.12.1 Introduction 318

6.12.2 Crystal truncation rods 319

6.12.3 Superstructure rods 322

6.12.4 Data acquisition 324

6.13 Resonant x-ray diffraction 326

6.14 X-ray reflectometry 329

6.14.1 Introduction 329

6.14.2 Reflection of x-rays and the Fresnel equations 329

6.14.3 Thin films and multilayers 332

6.14.4 XRR monitoring of thin film growth 336

6.15 Small-angle x-ray scattering 338

6.15.1 Introduction 338

6.15.2 Theory 340

6.15.3 Practical considerations 355

6.15.4 Grazing incidence SAXS 355

6.16 Concluding remarks 357

7 Spectroscopic techniques 367

7.1 Introduction 367

7.2 X-ray absorption processes 369

7.2.1 Energy-level schemes of atoms, molecules, and solids 371

7.2.2 Absorption features 375

7.3 Photoelectron energies, wavelengths and absorption regions 376

7.3.1 The universal curve 378

7.3.2 σ- and π-polarizations 380

7.4 X-ray absorption near-edge structure, XANES 381

7.4.1 Introduction 381

7.4.2 The XANES signal 382

7.5 Extended x-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS 387

7.5.1 Introduction 387

7.5.2 The EXAFS signal 388

7.5.3 Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy 394

7.6 Fluorescence spectroscopies 398

7.6.1 Introduction 398

7.6.2 X-ray fluorescence 398

7.6.3 Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering 399

7.6.4 X-ray standing waves 404

7.7 Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, STXM 406

7.7.1 Introduction 406

7.7.2 The water window 406

7.7.3 Modes in STXM 408

7.8 Photoemission electron microscopy 410

7.8.1 Basics of PEEM 410

7.8.2 PEEM and magnetic dichroism 412

7.9 Photoemission spectroscopy 416

7.9.1 Introduction 416

7.9.2 Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy 419

7.9.3 Soft-x-ray-ARPES 432

7.9.4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 435

7.9.5 Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 438

7.10 Concluding remarks 440

8 Imaging techniques 445

8.1 Introduction 445

8.2 X-ray computed microtomography 446

8.2.1 Introduction 446

8.2.2 General concepts 449

8.2.3 Practical considerations 453

8.2.4 Phase-contrast tomography 454

8.2.5 Fast XTM 464

8.2.6 Laminography 466

8.3 Full-field microscopy 467

8.3.1 Zernike x-ray microscopy 468

8.4 Lensless imaging 470

8.4.1 Introduction 470

8.4.2 Speckle 472

8.4.3 Noncrystalline and crystalline samples 474

8.4.4 Oversampling and redundancy 475

8.4.5 Ptychography 478

8.4.6 Scanning SAXS and small-angle scattering tensor tomography480

8.4.7 X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy 481

8.5 Concluding remarks 483

Appendices 489

A Cryogenic electron microscopy 491

B Some helpful mathematical relations and approximations 497

C Fourier series and Fourier transforms made simple 499

C.1 Introductory remarks 499

C.2 Periodic functions 501

C.3 From Fourier series to Fourier transforms 504

C.4 Mathematical properties of Fourier transforms 506

D Argand diagrams and the complex plane 509

E Solutions to Problems 513

E.2 Chapter 2— The interaction of x-rays with matter 513

E.3 Chapter 3— Synchrotron physics 519

E.4 Chapter 4— Free-electron lasers 530

E.5 Chapter 5— Beamlines 532

E.6 Chapter 6— Scattering techniques 542

E.7 Chapter 7— Spectroscopic techniques 557

E.8 Chapter 8— Imaging techniques 564

F Glossary 569

G Physical constants relevant to synchrotron radiation 573

Index