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Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits, 5th Edition

Paul R. Gray, Paul J. Hurst, Stephen H. Lewis, Robert G. Meyer

ISBN: 978-0-470-24599-6 January 2009 896 Pages


This is the only comprehensive book in the market for engineers that covers the design of CMOS and bipolar analog integrated circuits. The fifth edition retains its completeness and updates the coverage of bipolar and CMOS circuits.
A thorough analysis of a new low-voltage bipolar operational amplifier has been added to Chapters 6, 7, 9, and 11.
Chapter 12 has been updated to include a fully differential folded cascode operational amplifier example. With its streamlined and up-to-date coverage, more engineers will turn to this resource to explore key concepts in the field.

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CHAPTER 1 Models for Integrated-Circuit Active Devices 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Depletion Region of a pn Junction 1

1.3 Large-Signal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 8

1.4 Small-Signal Models of Bipolar Transistors 25

1.5 Large-Signal Behavior of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors 38

1.6 Small-Signal Models of MOS Transistors 49

1.7 Short-Channel Effects in MOS Transistors 59

1.8 Weak Inversion in MOS Transistors 65

1.9 Substrate Current Flow in MOS Transistors 71

A.1.1 Summary of Active-Device Parameters 73

CHAPTER 2 Bipolar, MOS, and BiCMOS Integrated-Circuit Technology 78

2.1 Introduction 78

2.2 Basic Processes in Integrated-Circuit Fabrication 79

2.3 High-Voltage Bipolar Integrated-Circuit Fabrication 88

2.4 Advanced Bipolar Integrated-Circuit Fabrication 92

2.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 95

2.6 Passive Components in Bipolar Integrated Circuits 115

2.7 Modifications to the Basic Bipolar Process 123

2.8 MOS Integrated-Circuit Fabrication 127

2.9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 131

2.10 Passive Components in MOS Technology 146

2.11 BiCMOS Technology 152

2.12 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors 153

2.13 Interconnect Delay 156

2.14 Economics of Integrated-Circuit Fabrication 156

A.2.1 SPICE Model-Parameter Files 162

CHAPTER 3 Single-Transistor and Multiple-Transistor Amplifiers 169

3.1 Device Model Selection for Approximate Analysis of Analog Circuits 170

3.2 Two-Port Modeling of Amplifiers 171

3.3 Basic Single-Transistor Amplifier Stages 173

3.4 Multiple-Transistor Amplifier Stages 201

3.5 Differential Pairs 214

A.3.1 Elementary Statistics and the Gaussian Distribution 244

CHAPTER 4 Current Mirrors, Active Loads, and References 251

4.1 Introduction 251

4.2 Current Mirrors 251

4.3 Active Loads 276

4.4 Voltage and Current References 297

A.4.1 Matching Considerations in Current Mirrors 325

A.4.1.1 Bipolar 325

A.4.1.2 MOS 328

A.4.2 Input Offset Voltage of Differential Pair with Active Load 330

A.4.2.1 Bipolar 330

A.4.2.2 MOS 332

CHAPTER 5 Output Stages 341

5.1 Introduction 341

5.2 The Emitter Follower as an Output Stage 341

5.3 The Source Follower as an Output Stage 353

5.4 Class B Push–Pull Output Stage 359

5.5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 379

CHAPTER 6 Operational Amplifiers with Single-Ended Outputs 400

6.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 401

6.2 Deviations from Ideality in Real Operational Amplifiers 415

6.3 Basic Two-Stage MOS Operational Amplifiers 421

6.4 Two-Stage MOS Operational Amplifiers with Cascodes 438

6.5 MOS Telescopic-Cascode Operational Amplifiers 439

6.6 MOS Folded-Cascode Operational Amplifiers 442

6.7 MOS Active-Cascode Operational Amplifiers 446

6.8 Bipolar Operational Amplifiers 448

CHAPTER 7 Frequency Response of Integrated Circuits 490

7.1 Introduction 490

7.2 Single-Stage Amplifiers 490

7.3 Multistage Amplifier Frequency Response 518

7.4 Analysis of the Frequency Response of the NE5234 Op Amp 539

7.5 Relation Between Frequency Response and Time Response 542

CHAPTER 8 Feedback 553

8.1 Ideal Feedback Equation 553

8.2 Gain Sensitivity 555

8.3 Effect of Negative Feedback on Distortion 555

8.4 Feedback Configurations 557

8.5 Practical Configurations and the Effect of Loading 563

8.6 Single-Stage Feedback 587

8.7 The Voltage Regulator as a Feedback Circuit 593

8.8 Feedback Circuit Analysis Using Return Ratio 599

8.9 Modeling Input and Output Ports in Feedback Circuits 613

CHAPTER 9 Frequency Response and Stability of Feedback Amplifiers 624

9.1 Introduction 624

9.2 Relation Between Gain and Bandwidth in Feedback Amplifiers 624

9.3 Instability and the Nyquist Criterion 626

9.4 Compensation 633

9.5 Root-Locus Techniques 664

9.6 Slew Rate 681

A.9.1 Analysis in Terms of Return-Ratio Parameters 693

A.9.2 Roots of a Quadratic Equation 694

CHAPTER 10 Nonlinear Analog Circuits 704

10.1 Introduction 704

10.2 Analog Multipliers Employing the Bipolar Transistor 704

10.3 Phase-Locked Loops (PLL) 716

10.4 Nonlinear Function Synthesis 731

CHAPTER 11 Noise in Integrated Circuits 736

11.1 Introduction 736

11.2 Sources of Noise 736

11.3 Noise Models of Integrated-Circuit Components 744

11.4 Circuit Noise Calculations 748

11.5 Equivalent Input Noise Generators 756

11.6 Effect of Feedback on Noise Performance 764

11.7 Noise Performance of Other Transistor Configurations 771

11.8 Noise in Operational Amplifiers 776

11.9 Noise Bandwidth 782

11.10 Noise Figure and Noise Temperature 786

CHAPTER 12 Fully Differential Operational Amplifiers 796

12.1 Introduction 796

12.2 Properties of Fully Differential Amplifiers 796

12.3 Small-Signal Models for Balanced Differential Amplifiers 799

12.4 Common-Mode Feedback 804

12.5 CMFB Circuits 811

12.6 Fully Differential Op Amps 823

12.7 Unbalanced Fully Differential Circuits 838

12.8 Bandwidth of the CMFB Loop 844

12.9 Analysis of a CMOS Fully Differential Folded-Cascode Op Amp 845

Index 871

  • Coverage of Bipolar 741 Op Amp: The coverage of the bipolar 741 op amp has been replaced with a low-voltage bipolar op amp, the NE5234, with rail-to-rail common-mode input range and almost rail-to-rail output swing.
  • Use of SPICE: Extensive use of SPICE is included in this new edition. SPICE is used as an integral part of many problems and computer analysis is used as it is most commonly employed in the engineering design process -- both as a more accurate check on hand calculations, and also as a tool to examine complex circuit behavior beyond the scope of hand analysis.
"Intended both for students and as a reference for working engineers, the fifth edition of this popular engineering textbook is updated to include discussions of newly available integrated circuits as well as general advances in the field. Drawn from material taught to high level seniors and graduate students at the University of California's Berkeley and Davis engineering departments, the work covers such topics as the physics of bipolar and MOS transistors, the technology of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication and the design and uses of operational amplifiers as well as many advanced topics in IC principles and design." (Reference and Research Book News, February 2011)

  • Coverage of cutting edge topics—more advanced CMOS device electronics to include short-channel effects, weak inversion and impact ionization.
  • State-of-the-art IC processes that show students how modern integrated circuits are fabricated, including recent issues like heterojunction bipolar transistors, copper interconnect and low permittivity dielectric materials.
  • Comprehensive and unified treatment of bipolar and CMOS circuits that helps students design real-world amplifiers in silicon.
  • A number of open-ended design problems, included in the problem sets, exposes the reader to real-world situations where a range of circuit solutions may be found to satisfy a given performance specification.
  • Extensive use of the SPICE computer analysis computer programs and is an integral part of many examples in the problem sets.