Skip to main content

Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits

Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits

Almudena Suarez

ISBN: 978-0-470-38589-0

Feb 2009, Wiley-IEEE Press

600 pages



Presents simulation techniques that substantially increase designers' control over the oscillationin autonomous circuits

This book facilitates a sound understanding of the free-running oscillation mechanism, the start-up from the noise level, and the establishment of the steady-state oscillation. It deals with the operation principles and main characteristics of free-running and injection-locked oscillators, coupled oscillators, and parametric frequency dividers.

Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits provides:

  • An exploration of the main nonlinear-analysis methods, with emphasis on harmonic balance and envelope transient methods

  • Techniques for the efficient simulation of the most common autonomous regimes

  • A presentation and comparison of the main stability-analysis methods in the frequency domain

  • A detailed examination of the instabilization mechanisms that delimit the operation bands of autonomous circuits

  • Coverage of techniques used to eliminate common types of undesired behavior, such as spurious oscillations, hysteresis, and chaos

  • A thorough presentation of the oscillator phase noise

  • A comparison of the main methodologies of phase-noise analysis

  • Techniques for autonomous circuit optimization, based on harmonic balance

  • A consideration of different design objectives: presetting the oscillation frequency and output power, increasing efficiency, modifying the transient duration, and imposing operation bands

Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits is a valuable resource for microwave designers, oscillator designers, and graduate students in RF microwave design.


1. Oscillator Dynamics.

1.1. Introduction.

1.2. Operational Principle of Free-Running Oscillators.

1.3. Impedance-Admittance Analysis of an Oscillator.

1.4. Frequency-Domain Formulation of an Oscillator Circuit.

1.5. Oscillator Dynamics.

1.6. Phase Noise.

2. Phase Noise.

2.1. Introduction.

2.2. Random Variable and random Processes.

2.3. Noise Sources in Electronic Circuits.

2.4. Derivation of the Oscillator Noise Spectrum Using Time-Domain Analysis.

2.5. Frequency-Domain Analysis of a Noisy Oscillator.

3. Bifurcation Analysis.

3.1. Introduction.

3.2. Representation of Solutions.

3.3. Bifurcations.

4. Injected Oscillators and Frequency Dividers.

4.1. Introduction.

4.2. Injection-Locked Oscillators.

4.3. Frequency Dividers.

4.4. Subharmonically and Ultrasubharmonically Injection-Locked Oscillators.

4.5. Self-Oscillating  Mixers.

5. Nonlinear Circuit Simulation.

5.1. Introduction.

5.2. Time-Domain Integration.

5.3. Fast Time-Domain Techniques.

5.4. Harmonic Balance.

5.5. Harmonic Balance Analysis of Autonomous and Synchronized Circuit.

5.6. Envelope Transient.

5.7. Conversion Matrix Approach.

6. Stability Analysis Using Harmonic Balance.

6.1. Introduction.

6.2. Local Stability Analysis.

6.3. Stability Analysis of Free-Running Oscillators.

6.4. Solution Curves Versus a Circuit Parameter.

6.5.Global Stability Analysis.

6.6. Bifurcation Synthesis and Control.

7. Noise Analysis Using Harmonic Balance.

7.1. Introduction.

7.2. Noise in Semiconductor Devices.

7.3. Decoupled Analysis of Phase and Amplitude Perturbations in a Harmonic Balance System.

7.4. Coupled Phase and Amplitude Noise Calculation.

7.5. Carrier Modulation Approach.

7.6. Conversion Matrix Approach.

7.7. Noise in Synchronized Oscillators.

8. Harmonic Balance Techniques for Oscillator Design.

8.1. Introduction.

8.2. Oscillator Synthesis.

8.3. Design of Voltage-Controlled Oscillators.

8.4. Maximization of Oscillator Efficiency.

8.5. Control of Oscillator Transients.

8.6. Phase Noise Reduction.

9. Stabilization Techniques for Phase Noise Reduction.

9.1. Introduction.

9.2. Self-Injection Topology.

9.3. Use of High-Q Resonators.

9.4. Stabilization Loop.

9.5. Transistor-Based Oscillators.

10. Coupled-Oscillator Systems.

10.1. Introduction.

10.2. Oscillator Systems with Global Coupling.

10.3. Coupled-Oscillator Systems for Beam Steering.

11. Simulation Techniques for Frequency-Divider Design.

11.1. Introduction.

11.2. Types of frequency dividers.

11.3. Design of Transistor-Based Regenerative Frequency Dividers.

11.4. Design of Harmonic Injection Dividers.

11.5. Extension of the Techniques to Subharmonic Injection Oscillators.

12. Circuit Stabilization.

12.1. Introduction.

12.2. Unstable Class AB Amplifier Using Power Combiners.

12.3. Unstable Class E/F Amplifier.

12.4. Unstable Class E Amplifier.

12.5. Stabilization of Oscillator Circuits.

12.6. Stabilization of Multifunction MMIC Chips.