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Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations

Lymon C. Reese, William M. Isenhower, Shin-Tower Wang

ISBN: 978-0-471-43159-6 November 2005 608 Pages



One-of-a-kind coverage on the fundamentals of foundation analysis and design

Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations is a significant new resource to the engineering principles used in the analysis and design of both shallow and deep, load-bearing foundations for a variety of building and structural types. Its unique presentation focuses on new developments in computer-aided analysis and soil-structure interaction, including foundations as deformable bodies.

Written by the world's leading foundation engineers, Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations covers everything from soil investigations and loading analysis to major types of foundations and construction methods. It also features:
* Coverage on computer-assisted analytical methods, balanced with standard methods such as site visits and the role of engineering geology
* Methods for computing the capacity and settlement of both shallow and deep foundations
* Field-testing methods and sample case studies, including projects where foundations have failed, supported with analyses of the failure
* CD-ROM containing demonstration versions of analytical geotechnical software from Ensoft, Inc. tailored for use by students in the classroom

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List of Symbols and Notations.

1. Introduction to Part 1.

1.1 Historical Use of Foundations.

1.2 Kinds of Foundations and their Uses.

Spread Footings and Mats.

Deep Foundations.

Hybrid Foundations.

1.3 Concepts in Design.

Site Visit.

Gain Information of Geology at Site.

Obtain Information on Magnitude and Nature of Loads on Foundation.

Obtain Information on Properties of Soil at Site.

Consideration of Long-term Effects.

Appropriate Attention to Analysis.

Recommendations for Tests of Deep Foundations.

Observe Behavior of Foundation for Completed Structure.



2. Engineering Geology.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Nature of Soil Affected by Geologic Processes.

Nature of Transported Soil.

Weathering and Residual Soil.

Nature of Soil Affected by Volcanic Processes.

Nature of Glaciated Soil.

Karst Geology.

2.3 Available Data on Regions in the United States.

2.4 U.S. Geological Survey and State Agencies.

2.5 Examples of Application of Engineering Geology.

2.6 Site Visit.



3. Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Data Needed to Design Foundations.

Solid and Rock Classification.

Location of the Water Table.

Shear Strength and Density.

Deformability Characteristics.

Prediction of Changes in Conditions and the Environment.

3.3 Nature of Soil.

Grain-size Distribution.

Types of Soil and Rock.

Mineralogy of Common Geologic Materials.

Water Content and Void Ratio.

Saturation of Soil.

Weight-Volume Relationships.

Atterberg Limits and the Unified Soils Classification System.

3.4 Concept of Effective Stress.

Laboratory Tests for Consolidation of Soils.

Spring and Piston Model of Consolidation.

Determination of Initial Total Stresses.

Calculation of Total and Effective Stresses.

The Role of Effective Stress in Soil Mechanics.

3.5 Analysis of Consolidation and Settlement.

Time Rates of Settlement.

One-Dimensional Consolidation Testing.

The Consolidation Curve.

Calculation of Total Settlement.

Calculation of Settlement due to Consolidation.

Reconstruction of the Field Consolidation Curve.

Effects of Sample Disturbance on Consolidation Properties.

Correlation of Consolidation Indices with Index Tests.

Comments on Accuracy of Settlement Computations.

3.6 Shear Strength of Soils.


Friction Between Two Surfaces in Contact.

Direct Shear Testing.

Triaxial Shear Testing.

Drained Triaxial Tests on Sand.

Triaxial Shear Testing of Saturated Clays.

The SHANSEP Method.

Other Types of Shear Testing for Soils.

Selection of the Appropriate Test Method.



4. Investigation of Subsurface Conditions.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Methods of Advancing Borings.

Wash-boring Technique.

Continuous-flight Auger with Hollow Core.

4.3 Methods of Sampling.


Sampling with Thin-Walled Tubes.

Sampling with Thick-Walled Tube.

Sampling Rock.

4.4 In Situ Testing of Soil.

Cone Penetrometer and Piezometer-Cone Penetrometer.

Vane Shear Device.


4.5 Boring Report.

4.6 Subsurface Investigations for Offshore Structures.



5. Principal Types of Foundations.

5.1 Shallow Foundations.

5.2 Deep Foundations.


Driven Piles with Impact Hammer.

Drilled Shafts.

Augercast Piles.

GeoJet Piles.


5.3 Caissons.

5.4 Hybrid Foundation.



6. Designing Stable Foundations.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Total and Differential Settlement.

6.3 Allowable Settlement of Structures.

Tolerance of Buildings to Settlement.

Exceptional Case of Settlement.

Problems in Proving Settlement.

6.4 Soil Investigations Appropriate to Design.


Favorable Profiles.

Soils with Special Characteristics.

Calcareous Soil.

6.5 Use of Valid Analytical Methods.

Oil Tank in Norway.

Transcona Elevator in Canada.

Bearing Piles in China.

6.6 Foundations at Unstable Slopes.

Pendleton Levee.

Fort Peck Dam.

6.7 Effects of Installation on Quality of Deep Foundations.


6.8 Effects of Installation of Deep Foundations on Nearby Structures.

Driving Piles.

6.9 Effects of Excavations on Nearby Structures.

6.10 Deleterious Effects of Environment on Foundations.

6.11 Scour of Soil at Foundations.



7. Theories of Bearing Capacity and Settlement.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Terzaghi's Equations for Bearing Capacity.

7.3 Revised Equations for Bearing Capacity.

7.4 Extended Formulas for Bearing Capacity by J. Brinch Hansen.


Load Inclination Factors.

Base and Ground Inclination.

Shape Factors.

Depth Effect.

Depth Factors.

General Formulas.

Passive Earth Pressure.

Soil Parameters.

Example Computations.

7.5 Equations for Computing Consolidation Settlement of Shallow.

Foundations on Saturated Clays.


Prediction of Total Settlement due to Loading of Clay Below the Water Table,

Prediction of Time Rate of Settlement due to Loading of Clay Below the Water Table.



8. Principles for the Design of Foundations.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Standards of Professional Conduct.

Fundamental Principles.

Fundamental Canons.

8.3 Design Team.

8.4 Codes and Standards.

8.5 Details of Project.

8.6 Factor of Safety.

Selection of Global Factor of Safety.

Selection of Partial Factors of Safety.

8.7 Design Process.

8.8 Specifications and Inspection of Project.

8.9 Observation of Completed Structure.




9. Geotechnical Design of Shallow Foundations.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Problems with Subsidence.

9.3 Designs to Accommodate Construction.

De-watering During Construction.

Dealing With Nearby Structures.

9.4 Shallow Foundations on Sand.


Immediate Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Sand.

Bearing Capacity of Footings on Sand.

Design of Rafts on Sand.

9.5 Shallow Foundations on Clay.

Settlement from Consolidation.

Immediate Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Clay.

Design of Shallow Foundations on Clay.

Design of Rafts.

9.6 Shallow Foundations Subjected to Vibratory Loading.

9.7 Designs in Special Circumstances.

Freezing Weather.

Design of Shallow Foundations on Collapsible Soil.

Design of Shallow Foundations on Expansive Clay.

Design of Shallow Foundations on Layered Soil.



10. Geotechnical Design of Driven Piles Under Axial Loads.

10.1 Comment on Nature of the Problem.

10.2 Methods of Computation.

Behavior of Axially-Loaded Piles.

Geotechnical Capacity of Axially-Loaded Piles.

10.3 Basic Equation for Computing the Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity of a Single Pile.

API Methods.

Revised Lambda Method.

U.S. Army Corps Method.

FHWA Method.

10.4 Analyzing the Load-Settlement Relationship of an Axially Loaded Pile.

Methods of Analyses.

Interpretation of Load-Settlement Curves.

10.5 Quality of Results Based on the Proposed Computation Method.

10.6 Example Problems.

Skin Friction.

10.7 Analysis of Pile Driving.


Dynamic Formulas.

Reasons for the Problems with Dynamic Formulas.

Dynamic Analysis by Wave Equation.

Effects of Pile Driving.

Effects of Time after Pile Driving with No Load.



11. Geotechnical Design of Drilled Shafts Under Axial Loading.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Presentation of FHWA Design Procedure.


11.3 Strength and Serviceability Requirements.

General Requirements.

Stability Analysis.

Strength Requirements.

11.4 Design Criteria.

Applicability and Deviations.

Loading Conditions.

Allowable Stresses.

11.5 General Computations for Axial Capacity of Individual Drilled Shafts.

11.6 Design Equations for Axial Capacity in Compression and in Uplift.

Description of Soil and Rock for Axial Capacity Computations.

Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesive Soils.

Design for Axial Capacity in Granular Soils.

Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesive Intermediate Geomaterials and Jointed Rock.

Design for Axial Capacity in Cohesionless Geomaterials

Design for Axial Capacity in Massive Rock.

Addition of Side Resistance and End Bearing in Rock.

Commentary on Design for Axial Capacity in Karst.

Comparison of Results from Theory and Experiment.


12. Fundamental Concepts Regarding Deep Foundations Under Lateral Loading.

12.1 Introduction.

Description of the Problem.

Occurrence of Piles Under Lateral Loading.

Historical Comment.

12.2 Derivation of the Differential Equation.

Solution of reduced form of differential equation.

12.3 Response of Soil to Lateral Loading.

12.4 Effect of Nature of Loading on Response of Soil.

12.5 Method of Analysis for Introductory Solutions for a Single Pile.

12.6 Example Solution Using Non-dimensional Charts for Analysis of a Single Pile.



13. Analysis of Individual Deep Foundations Under Axial Loading Using t-z Model.

13.1 Short-term Settlement and Uplift.

Settlement and Uplift Movements.

Basic Equations.

Finite Difference Equations.

Load-Transfer Curves.

Load-Transfer Curves for Side Resistance in Cohesive Soil.

Load-Transfer Curves for End Bearing in Cohesive Soil.

Load-Transfer Curves for Side Resistance in Cohesionless Soil.

Load-Transfer Curves for End Bearing in Cohesionless Soil.

Load-Transfer Curves for Cohesionless Intermediated Geomaterials.

Example Computation.

13.2 Design for Vertical Ground Movements Due to Downdrag or Expansive Uplift.

Downward Movements Due to Downdrag.

Upward Movement Due to Expansive Uplift.


14. Analysis and Design by Computer of Piles Subjected to Lateral Loading.

14.1 Nature of the Comprehensive Problem.

14.2 Differential Equation for Comprehensive Solution.

14.3 Recommendations for p-y Curves for Soil and Rock.

Introductory Comments.

Recommendations for p-y Curves for Clays.

Recommendations for p-y Curves for Sands.

Modifications to p-y Curves for Sloping Ground.

Modifications for Raked (Battered Piles).

Recommendations for p-y Curves for Rock.

14.4 Solution of Differential Equation by Computer.


Formula of Equation by Finite Differences.

Equations for Boundary Conditions for Useful Solutions.

14.5 Implementation of Computer Code.

Selection of Length Increment.

Safe Penetration of Pile With No Axial Load.

Buckling of a Pipe Extending Above Ground Line.

Steel Pile Supporting a Retaining Wall.

Drilled Shaft Supporting an Overhead Structure.



15. Analysis of Pile Groups.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Distribution of Load to Piles in a Group, the Two-Dimensional Problem.

Model of the Problem.

Detailed Step-by-Step Solution Procedure.

15.3 Modification of p-y Curves for Battered Piles.

15.4 Example Solution Showing Distribution of Load to Piles in a Two-Dimensional Group.

Solution by Hand Computations.

15.5 Efficiency of Piles in Groups Under Lateral Loading.

Modifying Lateral Resistance of Closely Spaced Piles.

Customary Methods of Adjusting Lateral Resistance for Close Spacing.

Adjusting for Close Spacing under Lateral Loading by Modified p-y Curves.

15.6 Efficiency of Piles in Groups Under Axial Loading.


Efficiency of Piles in a Group in Cohesionless Soils.

Efficiency of Piles in a Group in Cohesive Soils.

Concluding Comments.



List of All References.

* Covers computer-assisted analytical methods, while being careful to emphasize standard methods such as site visits and the role of engineering geology

* Includes methods for computing the settlement of both shallow and deep foundations

* Includes field testing methods, and features sample case studies, including projects where foundations have failed with analysis of what caused the failure

* Accompanied with Instructor's Manual, containing problem solutions, and a CD-ROM featuring demonstration versions of analytical geotechnical software from Ensoft