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Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers: Theory, Design, and Measurements

Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers: Theory, Design, and Measurements

Qian Xu, Yi Huang

ISBN: 978-1-119-36204-3

Oct 2018, Wiley-IEEE Press

400 pages



A comprehensive review of the recent advances in anechoic chamber and reverberation chamber designs and measurements

Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers is a guide to the latest systematic solutions for designing anechoic chambers that rely on state-of-the-art computational electromagnetic algorithms. This essential resource contains a theoretical and practical understanding for electromagnetic compatibility and antenna testing. The solutions outlined optimise chamber performance in the structure, absorber layout and antenna positions whilst minimising the overall cost. The anechoic chamber designs are verified by measurement results from Microwave Vision Group that validate the accuracy of the solution.

Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers fills this gap in the literature by providing a comprehensive reference to electromagnetic measurements, applications and over-the-air tests inside chambers. The expert contributors offer a summary of the latest developments in anechoic and reverberation chambers to help scientists and engineers apply the most recent technologies in the field. In addition, the book contains a comparison between reverberation and anechoic chambers and identifies their strengths and weaknesses. This important resource:

•    Provides a systematic solution for anechoic chamber design by using state-of-the-art computational electromagnetic algorithms

•    Examines both types of chamber in use: comparing and contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of each

•    Reviews typical over-the-air measurements and new applications in reverberation chambers

•    Offers a timely and complete reference written by authors working at the cutting edge of the technology

•    Contains helpful illustrations, photographs, practical examples and comparison between measurements and simulations

Written for both academics and industrial engineers and designers, Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers explores the most recent advances in anechoic chamber and reverberation chamber designs and measurements.

About the Authors



Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

1.1.1 Anechoic Chamber

1.1.2 Reverberation Chamber

1.1.3 Relationship between Anechoic Chamber and Reverberation Chamber

1.2 Organisation of This Book


Chapter 2: Theory for Anechoic Chamber Design

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Absorbing Material Basics

2.2.1 General Knowledge

2.2.2 Absorbing Material Simulation

2.2.3 Absorbing Material Measurement

2.3 CEM Algorithms Overview

2.4 GO Theory

2.4.1 GO from Maxwell Equations

2.4.2 Analytical Expression of Reflected Field from Curved Surface

2.4.3 Alternative GO Form

2.5 GO-FEM Hybrid Method

2.6 Summary


Chapter 3: Computer Aided Anechoic Chamber Design

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Framework

3.3 Software Implementation

3.3.1 3D Model Description

3.3.2 Algorithm Complexities

3.3.3 Far-field Data

3.3.4 Boundary Condition

3.3.5 RAM Description

3.3.6 Forward Algorithm

3.3.7 Inverse Algorithm

3.3.8 Post Processing

3.4 Summary


Chapter 4: Anechoic Chamber Design Examples and Verifications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Normalised Site Attenuation

4.2.1 NSA Definition

4.2.2 NSA Simulation and Measurement

4.3 Site Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

4.3.1 SVSWR Definition

4.3.2 SVSWR Simulation and Measurement

4.4 Field Uniformity

4.4.1 FU Definition

4.4.2 FU Simulation and Measurement

4.5 Design Margin

4.6 Summary


Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Reverberation Chamber

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Resonant Cavity Model

5.3 Ray Model

5.4 Statistical Electromagnetics

5.4.1 Plane-Wave Spectrum Model

5.4.2 Field Correlations

5.4.3 Boundary Fields

5.4.4 Enhanced Back Scattering Effect

5.4.5 Loss Mechanism

5.4.6 Probability Distribution Functions

5.5 Figures of Merit

5.5.1 Field Uniformity

5.5.2 Lowest Usable Frequency

5.5.3 Correlation Coefficient and Independent Sample Number

5.5.4 Field Anisotropy Coefficients and Inhomogeneity Coefficients

5.5.5 Stirring Ratio

5.5.6 K Factor

5.6 Summary


Chapter 6: The Design of a Reverberation Chamber

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Design Guidelines

6.3 Simulation of the RC

6.4 Time Domain Characterisation of the RC

6.4.1 Statistical Behaviour in the Time Domain

6.4.2 Stirrer Efficiency Based on Total Scattering Cross Section

6.4.3 Time-Gating Technique

6.5 Duality Principle in the RC

6.6 The Limit of ACS and TSCS

6.7 A Design Example

6.8 Summary


Chapter 7: Measurements in the Reverberation Chamber

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Q Factor and Decay Constant

7.3 Radiated Immunity Test

7.4 Radiated Emission Measurement

7.5 Free-Space Antenna S-parameter Measurement

7.6 Antenna Radiation Efficiency Measurement

7.6.1 Reference Antenna Method

7.6.2 Non-Reference Antenna Method

7.7 MIMO Antenna and Channel Emulation

7.7.1 Diversity Gain Measurement

7.7.2 Total Isotropic Sensitivity Measurement

7.7.3 Channel Capacity Measurement

7.7.4 Doppler Effect

7.8 Antenna Radiation Pattern Measurement

7.8.1 Theory

7.8.2 Simulations and Measurements

7.8.3 Discussion and Error Analysis

7.9 Material Measurements

7.9.1 Absorption Cross Section

7.9.2 Average Absorption Coefficient

7.9.3 Permittivity

7.9.4 Material Shielding Effectiveness

7.10 Cavity Shielding Effectiveness Measurement

7.11 Volume Measurement

7.12 Summary


Chapter 8 Measurement Uncertainty in the Reverberation Chamber

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Procedure for Uncertainty Characterisation

8.3 Uncertainty Model

8.3.1 ACF Method

8.3.2 DoF Method

8.3.3 Comparison of ACF and DoF Methods

8.3.4 Semi-empirical Model

8.4 Measurement Uncertainty of Antenna Efficiency

8.5 Summary


Chapter 9 Inter-comparison between Antenna Radiation Efficiency Measurements Performed in an Anechoic Chamber and in a Reverberation Chamber

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Measurement Facilities and Setups

9.2.1 Anechoic Chamber

9.2.2 Reverberation Chamber

9.3 Antenna Efficiency Measurements

9.3.1 Theory

9.3.2 Comparison between the AC and the RC

9.4 Summary


Chapter 10: Discussion on Future Applications

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Anechoic Chamber

10.3 Reverberation Chamber



Appendix A Code Snippets

Appendix B Reference NSA Values

Appendix C Test Report Template

Appendix D Typical Bandpass Filters

Appendix E Compact Reverberation Chamber at NUAA

Appendix F Relevant Statistics