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Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers: Theory, Design and Measurements

Anechoic and Reverberation Chambers: Theory, Design and Measurements

Qian Xu, Yi Huang

ISBN: 978-1-119-36204-3

Nov 2018, Wiley-IEEE Press

408 pages


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An anechoic chamber (AC) is a large room lined with radio absorbing materials (RAMs) on the walls, floor and ceiling to simulate a free space environment. It has been used in antennas, radar, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) areas for many years, but the design of an AC is a challenging system-level problem, involving different companies such as those producing RAMs, antennas or mechanical control systems. The anechoic chamber has been used in the RF and microwave industry for many years. This book provides the latest systematic solutions for anechoic chamber design using state-of-the-art computational electromagnetics algorithms. The objective is to maximize the chamber performance and minimize the overall cost. The AC designs are verified by measurement results from Microwave Vision Group (MVG) which validate the accuracy of the solution.

 Reverberation chambers (RCs) were originally developed for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) measurements. Over the past few years the application area has been extended greatly, from antenna measurements to communication channel emulation. It is believed in some applications that using an RC is much better than using an AC. The number of published papers in the new applications of the RC has increased significantly, but currently there is no relevant book in this area to summarize the latest advances to help people to apply these methods in practice. This book will fill this gap and provide a relatively comprehensive reference for radio frequency (RF) engineers and EMC engineers to use these chambers with the latest technology, covering a series of the latest measurement methods in the RC.

These two chambers are essential measurement facilities for antennas and EMC measurements. It will be shown that they are closely related; for example, both of them can be used for antenna efficiency, and radiated emission and immunity measurements. Comparison between them will be made to identify their advantages and disadvantages. 

About the Authors



Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

1.1.1 Anechoic Chamber

1.1.2 Reverberation Chamber

1.1.3 Relationship between Anechoic Chamber and Reverberation Chamber

1.2 Organisation of This Book


Chapter 2: Theory for Anechoic Chamber Design

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Absorbing Material Basics

2.2.1 General Knowledge

2.2.2 Absorbing Material Simulation

2.2.3 Absorbing Material Measurement

2.3 CEM Algorithms Overview

2.4 GO Theory

2.4.1 GO from Maxwell Equations

2.4.2 Analytical Expression of Reflected Field from Curved Surface

2.4.3 Alternative GO Form

2.5 GO-FEM Hybrid Method

2.6 Summary


Chapter 3: Computer Aided Anechoic Chamber Design

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Framework

3.3 Software Implementation

3.3.1 3D Model Description

3.3.2 Algorithm Complexities

3.3.3 Far-field Data

3.3.4 Boundary Condition

3.3.5 RAM Description

3.3.6 Forward Algorithm

3.3.7 Inverse Algorithm

3.3.8 Post Processing

3.4 Summary


Chapter 4: Anechoic Chamber Design Examples and Verifications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Normalised Site Attenuation

4.2.1 NSA Definition

4.2.2 NSA Simulation and Measurement

4.3 Site Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

4.3.1 SVSWR Definition

4.3.2 SVSWR Simulation and Measurement

4.4 Field Uniformity

4.4.1 FU Definition

4.4.2 FU Simulation and Measurement

4.5 Design Margin

4.6 Summary


Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Reverberation Chamber

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Resonant Cavity Model

5.3 Ray Model

5.4 Statistical Electromagnetics

5.4.1 Plane-Wave Spectrum Model

5.4.2 Field Correlations

5.4.3 Boundary Fields

5.4.4 Enhanced Back Scattering Effect

5.4.5 Loss Mechanism

5.4.6 Probability Distribution Functions

5.5 Figures of Merit

5.5.1 Field Uniformity

5.5.2 Lowest Usable Frequency

5.5.3 Correlation Coefficient and Independent Sample Number

5.5.4 Field Anisotropy Coefficients and Inhomogeneity Coefficients

5.5.5 Stirring Ratio

5.5.6 K Factor

5.6 Summary


Chapter 6: The Design of a Reverberation Chamber

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Design Guidelines

6.3 Simulation of the RC

6.4 Time Domain Characterisation of the RC

6.4.1 Statistical Behaviour in the Time Domain

6.4.2 Stirrer Efficiency Based on Total Scattering Cross Section

6.4.3 Time-Gating Technique

6.5 Duality Principle in the RC

6.6 The Limit of ACS and TSCS

6.7 A Design Example

6.8 Summary


Chapter 7: Measurements in the Reverberation Chamber

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Q Factor and Decay Constant

7.3 Radiated Immunity Test

7.4 Radiated Emission Measurement

7.5 Free-Space Antenna S-parameter Measurement

7.6 Antenna Radiation Efficiency Measurement

7.6.1 Reference Antenna Method

7.6.2 Non-Reference Antenna Method

7.7 MIMO Antenna and Channel Emulation

7.7.1 Diversity Gain Measurement

7.7.2 Total Isotropic Sensitivity Measurement

7.7.3 Channel Capacity Measurement

7.7.4 Doppler Effect

7.8 Antenna Radiation Pattern Measurement

7.8.1 Theory

7.8.2 Simulations and Measurements

7.8.3 Discussion and Error Analysis

7.9 Material Measurements

7.9.1 Absorption Cross Section

7.9.2 Average Absorption Coefficient

7.9.3 Permittivity

7.9.4 Material Shielding Effectiveness

7.10 Cavity Shielding Effectiveness Measurement

7.11 Volume Measurement

7.12 Summary


Chapter 8 Measurement Uncertainty in the Reverberation Chamber

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Procedure for Uncertainty Characterisation

8.3 Uncertainty Model

8.3.1 ACF Method

8.3.2 DoF Method

8.3.3 Comparison of ACF and DoF Methods

8.3.4 Semi-empirical Model

8.4 Measurement Uncertainty of Antenna Efficiency

8.5 Summary


Chapter 9 Inter-comparison between Antenna Radiation Efficiency Measurements Performed in an Anechoic Chamber and in a Reverberation Chamber

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Measurement Facilities and Setups

9.2.1 Anechoic Chamber

9.2.2 Reverberation Chamber

9.3 Antenna Efficiency Measurements

9.3.1 Theory

9.3.2 Comparison between the AC and the RC

9.4 Summary


Chapter 10: Discussion on Future Applications

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Anechoic Chamber

10.3 Reverberation Chamber



Appendix A Code Snippets

Appendix B Reference NSA Values

Appendix C Test Report Template

Appendix D Typical Bandpass Filters

Appendix E Compact Reverberation Chamber at NUAA

Appendix F Relevant Statistics