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Anelasticity in the Earth

Anelasticity in the Earth

Frank D. Stacey (Editor), M. S. Paterson (Editor), A. Nicholas (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66994-5 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 122 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geodynamics Series, Volume 4.

The fact that the materials in the solid parts of the Earth depart from perfectly elastic behaviour is now central to fundamental geophysical studies. Slow deformation (creep) by the processes of mantle convection has been widely recognised for about 25 years; it has been realised for much longer that seismic waves are attenuated but more recently there has developed a general if vague awareness of a probable correlation between high attenuation and low resistance to creep and in the last few years seismic attenuation has received much greater attention because it implies a first order dispersion of body waves (frequency dependence of elasticity).

Foreword
C. L. Drake and A. L. Hales 1

Preface
F. D. Stacey, M. S. Paterson, and A. Nicolas 3

The Physics of Creep and Attenuation in the Mantle
D. L. Anderson and J. B. Minster 5

Linear Viscoelastic Behaviour in Rocks
B. J. Brennan 13

Differential Attenuation Coefficients for Rayleigh Waves: A New Constraint on Q-Models
M. Cara 23

Q-1 Models From Data Space Inversion of Fundamental Spheroidal Mode Attenuation Measurements
S. Stein, J. M. Mills, Jr. and R. J. Geller 39

Qs of the Lower mantle - A Body Wave Determination
I. S. Sacks 55

The Viscosities of the Earth's Mantle
W. R. Peltier, P. Wu, and D. A. Yuen 59

Rock Mass Characterisation by Velocity and Q Measurement With Ultrasonics
G. P. Stacey and M. T. Gladwin 78

Frequency Dependence of Q for Rock Stressed Near the Breaking Point
G. J. Turner and F. D. Stacey 83

Attenuation Mechanisms and Anelasticity in the Upper Mantle
Y. Gueguen, J. Woirgard, and M. Darot 86

Silicon Diffusion in Forsterite: A New Constraint for Understanding •ntle Deformation
O. Jaoul, M. Poumellec, C. Froidevaux, and A. Havette 95

Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Creep of Olivine
D. L. Kohlstedt and P. Hornack 101

The Influence of Strain Rate and Moisture Content on Rock Failure
H. Spetzler, C. Sondergeld, and I. C. Getting 108

Martensitic Olivine-Spinel Transformation and Plasticity of the Mantle Transition Zone
J.P. Poirier 113

Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation in Basalt Melt
M. H. Manghnani, C. S. Rai, •. W. Katahara, and G. R. Olhoeft 118