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Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability

Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability

Martin O. Jeffries (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66824-5

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

407 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 74.

In a 1971 Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research report that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the following observation: "People who study sea ice in the Arctic Basin are commonly asked if they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, and they answer 'why bother, it's the same old stuff." Noting this was "fortunately true to a considerable extent," they added "It is clear that future work will depend critically on the logistics facilities available to allow surface observations beyond the fast ice edge at all seasons of the year. Of almost equal importance will be the development of instruments and recording equipment suited for use in the polar environment" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: Some Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited by G. Deacon, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).

Lewis and Weeks made no specific mention of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the first passive microwave sensor became operational in December 1972. Less than a year later the giant Weddell Polynya was observed for the first time. Perhaps more than any other development, this unexpected feature illustrated the potential to greatly expand our knowledge of sea ice through the application of spaceborne remote sensing. Simultaneously, it acted as a catalyst for a significant increase in the level of research.

Preface
Martin O. Jeffries xi

Snow Cover on Sea Ice

The Winter Snow Cover of the West Antarctic Pack Ice: Its Spatial and Temporal Variability
Matthew Sturm, Kim Morris, and Robert A. Massom 1

Snow Depth Distribution Over Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean From Satellite Passive Microwave Data
Thorsten Markus and Donald d. Cavalieri 19

Ice Formation, Thickness and Drift in the Pack Ice

East Antarctic Sea Ice: A Review of Its Structure, Properties and Drift
Anthony P. Worby, Robert A. Massom, Ian Allison, Victoria Lytle, and Petra Heil  41

Late Winter First-Year Ice Floe Thickness Variability, Seawater Flooding and Snow Ice Formation in the Amundsen and Ross Seas
Martin O. Jeffries Shusun Li, Ricardo A. Jana, H. Roy Krousaen, and Barbara Hurst-Cushing  69

Deriving Modes and Rates of Ice Growth in the Weddell Sea From Microstructural Sallinity
and Stable-Isotope Data
Hajo Eicken 89

Temporal and Regional Variation of Sea Ice Draft and Coverage in the Weddell Sea
Obtained From Upward Looking Sonars
Volker H. Strass and Eberhard Fahrbach 123

Sea Ice Drift and Deformation Processeisn the Western Weddell Sea
Cathleen A. Geiger, Stephen F. Ackley, and William D. Hibler III 141

Satellite Microwave Observations of Pack Ice Characteristics and Processes

Oscillatory Behavior in Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations
Per Gloersen and Alena Mernicky 161

Length of the Sea Ice Season in the Southern Ocean, 1988 - 1994
Claire L. Parkinson 173

Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice
Mark R. Drinkwater 187

Sea Ice Characteristaics and Seasonal Variability of ERS-1 SAR Backscatter in the Bellingshausen Sea
Kim Morris, Martin O. Jeffries and Shusun Li 213


Interactions Between Ice, Ocean and Atmosphere

Antarctic Ocean-lce Interaction: Implications From Ocean Bulk Property Distributions in the Weddell
Gyre
Douglas G. Martinson and Richard A. lannuzzi  243

Ice Formationin Coastal Polynyas in the Weddell Sea and Their Impact on Oceanic Salinity
Thorsten Markus, Christoph Kottmeier, and Eberhard Fahrbach  273

Interannual Variability in Summer Sea Ice Minimum, Coastal Polynyas and Bottom Water
Formation in the Weddell Sea
Josefino C. Comiso and Arnold L. Gordon  293

Marginal Ice Zone Characteristics and Processes

Mesoscale Ice Features in the Summer Marginal Ice Zone off East Queen Maud Land Observed
in NOAA AVHRR Imagery
Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Takayuki Ishikawa  317

Wave Damping in Compact Pancake Ice Fields due to Interactions Between Pancakes
Hayley H. Shen and Vernon A. Squire  325

Landfast and Marine Ice Characteristics

Some Features of the Growth, Structure and Metamorphism of East Antarctic Landfast Sea Ice
VladimirI . Fedotov, Nikolay V. Cherepanov, and Konstantin P. Tyshko  343

Physical and Structural Properties of Landfast Sea Ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Anthony J. Gow, Stephen F. Ackley, John W. Govoni, and Wilford F. Weeks  355

Linking Landfast Sea Ice Variability to Marine Ice Accretion at Hells Gate Ice Shelf, Ross Sea
Jean Louis Tison ,Reginald D. Lotrain, Ariane Bouzette, Michela Dini, Aldino Bondesan,
and Michel Stidvenard  375