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Antenna Arrays: A Computational Approach



Antenna Arrays: A Computational Approach

Randy L. Haupt

ISBN: 978-0-470-93743-3 September 2010 Wiley-IEEE Press 534 Pages

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A comprehensive tutorial on the design and practical applications of antenna arrays

An antenna array is an assembly of antenna elements that maximizes a received or transmitted signal in a desired direction. This practical book covers a wide range of antenna array topics that are becoming increasingly important in wireless applications, with emphasis on array design, applications, and computer modeling.

Each chapter in Antenna Arrays builds upon the previous chapter, progressively addressing more difficult material. Beginning with basic electromagnetics/antennas/antenna systems information, the book then deals with the analysis and synthesis of arrays of point sources and their associated array factors. It presents a sampling of different antenna elements that replace these point sources, then presents element configurations that do not have to lie along a line or in a plane.

The complex and difficult-to-predict interactions of elements and electromagnetic waves are introduced, along with computer modeling and experiments that are necessary for predicting the performance of arrays where mutual coupling is important. Then, various approaches to getting signals to and from the array elements to a computer where the signal detection takes place are explored, as are the numerical techniques behind smart antennas.

The book emphasizes the computational methods used in the design and analysis of array antennas. Also featured are signal processing and numerical modeling algorithms, as well as pictures of antenna arrays and components provided by industry and government sources, with explanations of how they operate.

Fully course-tested, Antenna Arrays serves as a complete text in phased array design and theory for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in electronics and communications, as well as a reference for practicing engineers and scientists in wireless communications, radar, and remote sensing.


1. Antenna Array Basics.

1.1. History of Antenna Arrays.

1.2. Electromagnetics for Array Analysis.

1.3. Solving for Electromagnetic Fields.

1.3.1. The Wave Equation.

1.3.2. Point Sources.

1.3.3. Hertzian Dipole.

1.3.4. Small Loop.

1.3.5. Plane Waves.

1.4. Antenna Models.

1.4.1. An Antenna as a Circuit Element.

1.4.2. An Antenna as a Spatial Filter.

1.4.3. An Antenna as a Frequency Filter.

1.4.4. An Antenna as a Collector.

1.4.5. An Antenna as a Polarization Filter.

1.5. Antenna Array Applications.

1.5.1. Communications System.

1.5.2. Radar System.

1.5.3. Radiometer.

1.5.4. Electromagnetic Heating.

1.5.5. Direction Finding.

1.6. Organization and Overview.


2. Array Factor Analysis.

2.1. The Array Factor.

2.1.1. Phase Steering.

2.1.2. End-Fire Array.

2.1.3. Main Beam Steering with Frequency.

2.1.4. Focusing.

2.2. Uniform Arrays.

2.2.1. Uniform Sum Patterns.

2.2.2. Uniform Difference Patterns.

2.3. Fourier Analysis of Linear Arrays.

2.4. Fourier Analysis of Planar Arrays.

2.5. Array Bandwidth.

2.6. Directivity.

2.7. Amplitude Tapers.

2.8. z Transform of the Array Factor.

2.9. Circular Arrays.

2.10. Direction Finding Arrays.

2.10.1. Adcock Array.

2.10.2. Orthogonal Linear Arrays.

2.11. Subarrays.

2.12. Errors.

2.12.1. Random Errors.

2.12.2. Quantization Errors.

2.13. Fractal Arrays.


3. Linear and Planar Array Factor Synthesis.

3.1. Synthesis of Amplitude and Phase Tapers.

3.1.1. Fourier Synthesis.

3.1.2. Woodward-Lawson Synthesis.

3.1.3. Least Squares Synthesis.

3.2. Analytical Synthesis of Amplitude Tapers.

3.2.1. Binomial Taper.

3.2.2. Dolph-Chebyshev Taper.

3.2.3. Taylor Taper.

3.2.4. Bickmore-Spellmire Taper.

3.2.5. Bayliss Taper.

3.2.6. Unit Circle Synthesis of Arbitrary Linear Array Factors.

3.2.7. Partially Tapered Arrays.

3.3. Numerical Synthesis of Low-Sidelobe Tapers.

3.4. Aperiodic Arrays.

3.4.1. Thinned Arrays.

3.4.2. Nonuniformly Spaced Arrays.

3.5. Low-Sidelobe Phase Taper.

3.6. Suppressing Grating Lobes Due to Subarray Weighting.

3.6.1. Subarray Tapers.

3.6.2. Thinned Subarrays.

3.7. Plane Wave Projection.

3.8. Interleaved Arrays.

3.9. Null Synthesis.


4. Array Factors and Element Patterns.

4.1. Pattern Multiplication.

4.2. Wire Antennas.

4.2.1. Dipoles.

4.2.2. Helical Antenna.

4.3. Aperture Antennas.

4.3.1. Apertures.

4.3.2. Open-Ended Waveguide Antennas.

4.3.3. Slots in Waveguides.

4.3.4. Horn Antennas.

4.4. Patch Antennas.

4.5. Broadband Antennas.

4.5.1. Spiral Antennas.

4.5.2. Dipole-Like Antennas.

4.5.3. Tapered Slot Antennas.

4.5.4. Dielectric Rod Antennas.


5. Nonplanar Arrays.

5.1. Arrays with Multiple Planar Faces.

5.2. Arrays on Singly Curved Surfaces.

5.2.1. Circular Adcock Array.

5.3. Arrays Conformal to Doubly Curved Surfaces.

5.4. Distributed Array Beamforming.

5.5. Time-Varying Arrays.

5.5.1. Synthetic Apertures.

5.5.2. Time-Modulated Arrays.

5.5.3. Time-Varying Array Element Positions.


6. Mutual Coupling.

6.1. Mutual Impedance.

6.2. Coupling Between Two Dipoles.

6.3. Method of Moments.

6.4. Mutual Coupling in Finite Arrays.

6.5. Infinite Arrays.

6.5.1. Infinite Arrays of Point Sources.

6.5.2. Infinite Arrays of Dipoles and Slots.

6.6. Large Arrays.

6.6.1. Fast Multipole Method.

6.6.2. Average Element Patterns.

6.6.3. Representative Element Patterns.

6.6.4. Center Element Patterns.

6.7. Array Blindness and Scanning.

6.8. Mutual Coupling Reduction/Compensation.


7. Array Beamforming Networks.

7.1. Transmission Lines.

7.2. S Parameters.

7.3. Matching Circuits.

7.4. Corporate and Series Feeds.

7.5. Slotted Waveguide Arrays.

7.5.1. Resonant Waveguide Arrays.

7.5.2. Traveling-Wave Waveguide Arrays.

7.6. Blass Matrix.

7.7. Butler Matrix.

7.8. Lenses.

7.8.1. Bootlace Lens.

7.8.2. Rotman Lens.

7.9. Refl ectarray.

7.10. Array Feeds for Refl ectors.

7.11. Array Feeds for Horn Antennas.

7.12. Phase Shifters.

7.13. Transmit/Receive Modules.

7.14. Digital Beamforming.

7.15. Neural Beamforming.

7.16. Calibration.


8. Smart Arrays.

8.1. Retrodirective Arrays.

8.2. Array Signals and Noise.

8.3. Direction of Arrival Estimation.

8.3.1. Periodogram.

8.3.2. Capon's Minimum Variance.

8.3.3. MUSIC Algorithm.

8.3.4. Maximum Entropy Method.

8.3.5. Pisarenko Harmonic Decomposition.

8.3.6. ESPRIT.

8.3.7. Estimating and Finding Sources.

8.4. Adaptive Nulling.

8.4.1. Sidelobe Blanking and Canceling.

8.4.2. Adaptive Nulling Using the Signal Correlation Matrix.

8.4.3. Adaptive Nulling via Power Minimization.

8.5. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) System.

8.6. Reconfigurable Arrays.