**Chapter 1 Introduction 1**

1.1 The History of Antennas 1

1.2 What Is an Antenna and When Is it Used? 10

1.3 How Antennas Radiate 13

1.4 The Four Antenna Types 17

References 22

Problems 22

**Chapter** **2** **Antenna Fundamentals 23**

2.1 Fundamentals of Electromagnetics 23

2.2 Solution of Maxwell’s Equations for Radiation Problems 27

2.3 The Ideal Dipole 32

2.4 Radiation Patterns 36

2.5 Directivity and Gain 50

2.6 Antenna Impedance 56

2.7 Radiation Efficiency 60

2.8 Antenna Polarization 61

References 66

Problems 66

**Chapter** **3** **Simple Radiating Systems 70**

3.1 Electrically Small Dipoles 70

3.2 Half-Wave Dipoles 73

3.3 Monopoles and Image Theory 75

3.4 Small Loop Antennas and Duality 81

3.5 Two-Element Arrays 89

References 97

Problems 97

**Chapter** **4** **System Applications for Antennas 100**

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 Receiving Properties of Antennas 100

4.3 Antenna Noise and Radiometry 103

4.4 Antennas in Communication Systems 107

4.5 Antennas In Wireless Communication Systems 116

4.6 Antennas in Radar Systems 122

4.7 Antennas As Unintentional Radiators 123

References 125

Problems 125

**Chapter** **5** **Line Sources 128**

5.1 The Uniform Line Source 128

5.2 Tapered Line Sources 137

5.3 Fourier Transform Relations Between the Far-Field Pattern and the Source Distribution 142

5.4 Fast Wave And Slow Wave Distributions 143

5.5 Superdirective Line Sources 145

References 148

Problems 148

**Chapter** **6** **Wire Antennas 151**

6.1 Dipole Antennas 151

6.2 Folded Dipole Antennas 161

6.3 Yagi-Uda Antennas 166

6.4 Feeding Wire Antennas 175

6.5 Loaded Wire Antennas 186

6.6 Ground Plane Backed Wire Antennas 190

6.7 Wire Antennas Above an Imperfect Ground Plane 198

6.8 Large Loop Antennas 205

References 211

Problems 212

**Chapter** **7** **Broadband Antennas 218**

7.1 Introduction 218

7.2 Traveling-Wave Wire Antennas 220

7.3 Helical Antennas 225

7.4 Biconical Antennas 233

7.5 Sleeve Antennas 239

7.6 Principles of Frequency-Independent Antennas 243

7.7 Spiral Antennas 245

7.8 Log-Periodic Antennas 251

7.9 Wideband EMC Antennas 261

7.10 Ultra-Wideband Antennas 264

References 266

Problems 268

**Chapter** **8** **Array Antennas 271**

8.1 Introduction 271

8.2 The Array Factor for Linear Arrays 272

8.3 Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 278

8.4 The Complete Array Pattern and Pattern Multiplication 286

8.5 Directivity of Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 293

8.6 Nonuniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 298

8.7 Mutual Coupling in Arrays 303

8.8 Multidimensional Arrays 311

8.9 Phased Arrays and Array Feeding Techniques 314

8.10 Elements for Arrays 327

8.11 Wideband Phased Arrays 332

References 336

Problems 338

**Chapter** **9** **Aperture Antennas 344**

9.1 Radiation from Apertures and Huygens’ Principle 344

9.2 Rectangular Apertures 353

9.3 Techniques for Evaluating Gain 360

9.4 Rectangular Horn Antennas 368

9.5 Circular Apertures 385

9.6 Reflector Antennas 391

9.7 Feed Antennas for Reflectors 416

9.8 Lens Antennas 424

References 425

Problems 427

**Chapter** **10** **Antenna Synthesis 433**

10.1 The Antenna Synthesis Problem 433

10.2 Line Source Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 437

10.3 Linear Array Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 440

10.4 Low Side Lobe, Narrow Main Beam Synthesis Methods 446

10.5 The Iterative Sampling Method 459

References 461

Problems 461

**Chapter** **11** **Low-Profile Antennas and Personal Communication Antennas 465**

11.1 Introduction 465

11.2 Microstrip Antenna Elements 466

11.3 Microstrip Arrays 478

11.4 Microstrip Leaky Wave Antennas 481

11.5 Fundamental Limits on Antenna Size 488

11.6 Antennas for Compact Devices 498

11.7 Dielectric Resonator Antennas 512

11.8 Near Fields of Electrically Large Antennas 519

11.9 Human Body Effects on Antenna Performance 523

11.10 Radiation Hazards 526

References 531

Problems 533

**Chapter** **12** **Terminal and Base Station Antennas for Wireless Applications 536**

12.1 Satellite Terminal Antennas 537

12.2 Base Station Antennas 538

12.3 Mobile Terminal Antennas 545

12.4 Smart Antennas 549

12.5 Adaptive and Spatial Filtering Antennas 553

References 557

Problems 557

**Chapter** **13** **Antenna Measurements 559**

13.1 Reciprocity and Antenna Measurements 559

13.2 Pattern Measurement and Antenna Ranges 564

13.3 Gain Measurement 571

13.4 Polarization Measurement 576

13.5 Field Intensity Measurement 580

13.6 Mobile Radio Antenna Measurements 582

13.7 Rules for Experimental Investigations 583

References 584

Problems 584

**Chapter** **14** **CEM for Antennas: The Method of Moments 587**

14.1 General Introduction to CEM 587

14.2 Introduction to the Method of Moments 590

14.3 Pocklington’s Integral Equation 591

14.4 Integral Equations and Kirchhoff’s Network Equations 594

14.5 Source Modeling 596

14.6 Weighted Residuals and the Method of Moments 601

14.7 Two Alternative Approaches to the Method of Moments 606

14.8 Formulation and Computational Considerations 610

14.9 Calculation of Antenna and Scatterer Characteristics 618

14.10 The Wire Antenna or Scatterer as an N-Port Network 621

14.11 Antenna Arrays 625

14.12 Radar Cross Section of Antennas 631

14.13 Modeling of Solid Surfaces 636

14.14 Summary 645

References 646

Problems 647

**Chapter** **15** **CEM for Antennas: Finite Difference Time Domain Method 652**

15.1 Maxwell’s Equations for the FDTD Method 654

15.2 Finite Differences and the Yee Algorithm 657

15.3 Cell Size, Numerical Stability, and Dispersion 664

15.4 Computer Algorithm and FDTD Implementation 667

15.5 Absorbing Boundary Conditions 670

15.6 Source Conditions 674

15.7 Near Fields and Far Fields 681

15.8 A Two-Dimensional Example: An E–Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 682

15.9 Antenna Analysis and Applications 689

15.10 Summary 697

References 697

Problems 698

**Chapter** **16** **CEM for Antennas: High-Frequency Methods 700**

16.1 Geometrical Optics 701

16.2 Wedge Diffraction Theory 707

16.3 The Ray-Fixed Coordinate System 716

16.4 A Uniform Theory of Wedge Diffraction 718

16.5 E-Plane Analysis of Horn Antennas 722

16.6 Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Antennas 725

16.7 Radiation by a Slot on a Finite Ground Plane 727

16.8 Radiation by a Monopole on a Finite Ground Plane 730

16.9 Equivalent Current Concepts 732

16.10 A Multiple Diffraction Formulation 735

16.11 Diffraction by Curved Surfaces 737

16.12 Application of UTD to Wireless Mobile Propagation 742

16.13 Extension of Moment Method Using the UTD 745

16.14 Physical Optics 750

16.15 Frequency Dependence of First-Order Scattering Sources 757

16.16 Method of Stationary Phase 760

16.17 Physical Theory of Diffraction 763

16.18 Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Antennas—PTD 769

16.19 Summary 771

References 771

Problems 773

**Appendix** **A** **Frequency Bands 781**

A.1 Radio Frequency Bands 781

A.2 Television Channel Frequencies (in North America) 781

A.3 Cellular Telephone Bands 782

A.4 Radar Bands 782

**Appendix** **B** **Material Data and Constants 783**

B.1 Conductivities of Good Conductors 783

B.2 Wire Data 783

B.3 Dielectric Constant: Permittivity of Free Space 784

B.4 Permeability of Free Space 784

B.5 Velocity of Light of Free Space 784

B.6 Intrinsic Impedance of Free Space 784

B.7 Properties of Some Common Dielectrics 784

**Appendix** **C** **Coordinate Systems and Vectors 785**

C.1 The Coordinate Systems and Unit Vectors 785

C.2 Vector Identities 786

C.3 Vector Differential Operators 787

**Appendix** **D** **Trigonometric Relations 789**

**Appendix** **E** **Hyperbolic Relations 791**

**Appendix** **F** **Mathematical Relations 793**

F.1 Dirac Delta Function 793

F.2 Binomial Theorem 793

F.3 Bessel Functions 793

F.4 Some Useful Integrals 794

**Appendix** **G** **Computing Tools for Antennas 795**

G.1 Wire Antenna Simulation Packages 795

G.2 Parabolic Reflector Antenna Simulation Packages 796

G.3 Web Sites with Antenna Calculation and Modeling Tools 796

**Appendix** **H** **Book List 797**

H.1 Introduction 797

H.2 Antenna Definitions 797

H.3 Fundamental Books on Antennas 797

H.4 Books on Antennas with Propagation 799

H.5 Books On Antennas With Other Topics 799

H.6 Handbooks and General Reference Books on Antennas 799

H.7 Books on Antenna Measurements 800

H.8 Books on Specific Antenna Topics 801

H.9 Books on Antennas For Specific Applications 805

H.10 Books on Computational Methods for Antennas 807

H.11 Books on Topics Closely Related to Antennas 809

Index 811