Applied Engineering Analysis
Applied Engineering Analysis
ISBN: 9781119071198
Mar 2018
528 pages
$104.99
Product not available for purchase
Description
Applied Engineering Analysis
TaiRan Hsu, San Jose State University, USA
A resource book applying mathematics to solve engineering problems
Applied Engineering Analysis is a concise textbookwhich demonstrates how toapply mathematics to solve engineering problems. It begins with an overview of engineering analysis and an introduction to mathematical modeling, followed by vector calculus, matrices and linear algebra, and applications of first and second order differential equations. Fourier series and Laplace transform are also covered, along with partial differential equations, numerical solutions to nonlinear and differential equations and an introduction to finite element analysis. The book also covers statistics with applications to design and statistical process controls.
Drawing on the author’s extensive industry and teaching experience, spanning 40 years, the book takes a pedagogical approach and includes examples, case studies and end of chapter problems. It is also accompanied by a website hosting a solutions manual and PowerPoint slides for instructors.
Key features:

Applied Engineering Analysis is a resource book for engineering students and professionals to learn how to apply the mathematics experience and skills that they have already acquired to their engineering profession for innovation, problem solving, and decision making.
Related Resources
Preface xvii
Suggestions to instructors xxi
About the companion website xxv
1 Overview of Engineering Analysis 1
Chapter Learning Objectives 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Engineering Analysis and Engineering Practices 2
1.2.1 Creation 2
1.2.2 Problem Solving 2
1.2.3 Decision Making 3
1.3 “Toolbox” for Engineering Analysis 5
1.4 The Four Stages in Engineering Analysis 8
1.5 Examples of the Application of Engineering Analysis in Design 10
1.6 The “Safety Factor” in Engineering Analysis of Structures 17
1.7 Problems 19
2 Mathematical Modeling 21
Chapter Learning Objectives 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 MathematicalModeling Terminology 26
2.2.1 The Numbers 26
2.2.1.1 Real Numbers 26
2.2.1.2 Imaginary Numbers 26
2.2.1.3 Absolute Values 26
2.2.1.4 Constants 26
2.2.1.5 Parameters 26
2.2.2 Variables 26
2.2.3 Functions 27
2.2.3.1 Form 1. Functions with Discrete Values 27
2.2.3.2 Form 2. Continuous Functions 27
2.2.3.3 Form 3. Piecewise Continuous Functions 28
2.2.4 Curve Fitting Technique in Engineering Analysis 30
2.2.4.1 Curve Fitting Using Polynomial Functions 30
2.2.5 Derivative 31
2.2.5.1 The Physical Meaning of Derivatives 32
2.2.5.2 Mathematical Expression of Derivatives 33
2.2.5.3 Orders of Derivatives 35
2.2.5.4 Higherorder Derivatives in Engineering Analyses 35
2.2.5.5 The Partial Derivatives 36
2.2.6 Integration 36
2.2.6.1 The Concept of Integration 36
2.2.6.2 Mathematical Expression of Integrals 37
2.3 Applications of Integrals 38
2.3.1 Plane Area by Integration 38
2.3.1.1 Plane Area Bounded by Two Curves 41
2.3.2 Volumes of Solids of Revolution 42
2.3.3 Centroids of Plane Areas 47
2.3.3.1 Centroid of a Solid of Plane Geometry with Straight Edges 49
2.3.3.2 Centroid of a Solid with Plane Geometry Defined by Multiple Functions 50
2.3.4 Average Value of Continuous Functions 52
2.4 Special Functions for MathematicalModeling 54
2.4.1 Special Functions in Solutions in MathematicalModeling 55
2.4.1.1 The Error Function and Complementary Error Function 55
2.4.1.2 The Gamma Function 56
2.4.1.3 Bessel Functions 56
2.4.2 Special Functions for Particular Physical Phenomena 58
2.4.2.1 Step Functions 58
2.4.2.2 Impulsive Functions 60
2.5 Differential Equations 62
2.5.1 The Laws of Physics for Derivation of Differential Equations 62
2.6 Problems 65
3 Vectors and Vector Calculus 73
Chapter Learning Objectives 73
3.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities 73
3.2 Vectors in Rectangular and Cylindrical Coordinate Systems 75
3.2.1 Position Vectors 75
3.3 Vectors in 2D Planes and 3D Spaces 78
3.4 Vector Algebra 79
3.4.1 Addition of Vectors 79
3.4.2 Subtraction of Vectors 79
3.4.3 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors Using Unit Vectors in Rectangular Coordinate Systems 80
3.4.4 Multiplication of Vectors 81
3.4.4.1 Scalar Multiplier 81
3.4.4.2 Dot Product 82
3.4.4.3 Cross Product 84
3.4.4.4 Cross Product of Vectors for Plane Areas 86
3.4.4.5 Triple product 86
3.4.4.6 Additional Laws of Vector Algebra 87
3.4.4.7 Use of Triple Product of Vectors for Solid Volume 87
3.5 Vector Calculus 88
3.5.1 Vector Functions 88
3.5.2 Derivatives of Vector Functions 89
3.5.3 Gradient, Divergence, and Curl 91
3.5.3.1 Gradient 91
3.5.3.2 Divergence 91
3.5.3.3 Curl 91
3.6 Applications of Vector Calculus in Engineering Analysis 92
3.6.1 In Heat Transfer 93
3.6.2 In Fluid Mechanics 93
3.6.3 In Electromagnetism with Maxwell’s Equations 94
3.7 Application of Vector Calculus in Rigid Body Dynamics 95
3.7.1 Rigid Body in RectilinearMotion 95
3.7.2 Plane CurvilinearMotion in Rectangular Coordinates 97
3.7.3 Application of Vector Calculus in the Kinematics of Projectiles 100
3.7.4 Plane CurvilinearMotion in Cylindrical Coordinates 103
3.7.5 Plane CurvilinearMotion with Normal and Tangential Components 109
3.8 Problems 114
4 Linear Algebra and Matrices 119
Chapter Learning Objectives 119
4.1 Introduction to Linear Algebra and Matrices 119
4.2 Determinants and Matrices 121
4.2.1 Evaluation of Determinants 121
4.2.2 Matrices in Engineering Analysis 123
4.3 Different Forms of Matrices 123
4.3.1 Rectangular Matrices 123
4.3.2 Square Matrices 124
4.3.3 Row Matrices 124
4.3.4 Column Matrices 124
4.3.5 Upper Triangular Matrices 124
4.3.6 Lower Triangular Matrices 125
4.3.7 Diagonal Matrices 125
4.3.8 Unit Matrices 125
4.4 Transposition of Matrices 125
4.5 Matrix Algebra 126
4.5.1 Addition and Subtraction of Matrices 126
4.5.2 Multiplication of a Matrix by a Scalar Quantity �� 127
4.5.3 Multiplication of Two Matrices 127
4.5.4 Matrix Representation of Simultaneous Linear Equations 128
4.5.5 Additional Rules for Multiplication of Matrices 129
4.6 Matrix Inversion, [A]−1 129
4.7 Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations 131
4.7.1 The Need for Solving Large Numbers of Simultaneous Linear Equations 131
4.7.2 Solution of Large Numbers of Simultaneous Linear Equations Using the Inverse Matrix Technique 133
4.7.3 Solution of Simultaneous Equations Using the Gaussian Elimination Method 135
4.8 Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions 141
4.8.1 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Matrices 142
4.8.2 Mathematical Expressions of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Square Matrices 142
4.8.3 Application of Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions in Engineering Analysis 146
4.9 Problems 148
5 Overview of Fourier Series 151
Chapter Learning Objectives 151
5.1 Introduction 151
5.2 Representing Periodic Functions by Fourier Series 152
5.3 Mathematical Expression of Fourier Series 154
5.4 Convergence of Fourier Series 161
5.5 Convergence of Fourier Series at Discontinuities 164
5.6 Problems 169
6 Introduction to the Laplace Transform and Applications 171
Chapter Learning Objectives 171
6.1 Introduction 171
6.2 Mathematical Operator of Laplace Transform 172
6.3 Properties of the Laplace Transform 174
6.3.1 Linear Operator Property 174
6.3.2 Shifting Property 175
6.3.3 Change of Scale Property 175
6.4 Inverse Laplace Transform 176
6.4.1 Using the Laplace Transform Tables in Reverse 176
6.4.2 The Partial Fraction Method 176
6.4.3 The Convolution Theorem 178
6.5 Laplace Transform of Derivatives 180
6.5.1 Laplace Transform of Ordinary Derivatives 180
6.5.2 Laplace Transform of Partial Derivatives 181
6.6 Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Laplace Transforms 184
6.6.1 Laplace Transform for Solving Nonhomogeneous Differential Equations 184
6.6.2 Differential Equation for the Bending of Beams 186
6.7 Solution of Partial Differential Equations Using Laplace Transforms 192
6.8 Problems 195
7 Application of Firstorder Differential Equations in Engineering Analysis 199
Chapter Learning Objectives 199
7.1 Introduction 199
7.2 Solution Methods for Firstorder Ordinary Differential Equations 200
7.2.1 Solution Methods for Separable Differential Equations 200
7.2.2 Solution of Linear, Homogeneous Equations 201
7.2.3 Solution of Linear, Nonhomogeneous Equations 202
7.3 Application of Firstorder Differential Equations in Fluid Mechanics Analysis 204
7.3.1 Fundamental Concepts 204
7.3.2 The Bernoulli Equation 205
7.3.3 The Continuity Equation 206
7.4 Liquid Flow in Reservoirs, Tanks, and Funnels 206
7.4.1 Derivation of Differential Equations 207
7.4.2 Solution of Differential Equations 208
7.4.3 Drainage of Tapered Funnels 209
7.5 Application of Firstorder Differential Equations in Heat Transfer Analysis 217
7.5.1 Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction in Solids 217
7.5.2 Mathematical Expression of Fourier’s Law 218
7.5.3 Heat Flux in a Threedimensional Space 221
7.5.4 Newton’s Cooling Law for Heat Convection 227
7.5.5 Heat Transfer between Solids and Fluids 227
7.6 Rigid Body Dynamics under the Influence of Gravitation 233
7.7 Problems 237
8 Application of Secondorder Ordinary Differential Equations in Mechanical Vibration Analysis 243
Chapter Learning Objectives 243
8.1 Introduction 243
8.2 Solution Method for Typical Homogeneous, Secondorder Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 243
8.3 Applications in Mechanical Vibration Analyses 246
8.3.1 What Is Mechanical Vibration? 246
8.3.2 Common Sources for Vibration 247
8.3.3 Common Types of Vibration 247
8.3.4 Classification of Mechanical Vibration Analyses 247
8.3.4.1 Free Vibration 247
8.3.4.2 Damped Vibration 248
8.3.4.3 Forced Vibration 249
8.4 Mathematical Modeling of Free Mechanical Vibration: Simple Mass–Spring Systems 249
8.4.1 Solution of the Differential Equation 251
8.5 Modeling of Damped FreeMechanical Vibration: Simple Mass–Spring Systems 254
8.5.1 The Physical Model 254
8.5.2 The Differential Equation 255
8.5.3 Solution of the Differential Equation 256
8.6 Solution of Nonhomogeneous, Secondorder Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 258
8.6.1 Typical Equation and Solutions 258
8.6.2 The Complementary and Particular Solutions 258
8.6.3 The Particular Solutions 259
8.6.4 Special Case for Solution of Nonhomogeneous Secondorder Differential Equations 263
8.7 Application in Forced Vibration Analysis 264
8.7.1 Derivation of the Differential Equation 264
8.7.2 Resonant Vibration 266
8.8 Near Resonant Vibration 273
8.9 Natural Frequencies of Structures and Modal Analysis 277
8.10 Problems 280
9 Applications of Partial Differential Equations in Mechanical Engineering Analysis 285
Chapter Learning Objectives 285
9.1 Introduction 285
9.2 Partial Derivatives 285
9.3 Solution Methods for Partial Differential Equations 287
9.3.1 The Separation of VariablesMethod 287
9.3.2 Laplace Transform Method for Solution of Partial Differential Equations 288
9.3.3 Fourier Transform Method for Solution of Partial Differential Equations 288
9.4 Partial Differential Equations for Heat Conduction in Solids 291
9.4.1 Heat Conduction in Engineering Analysis 291
9.4.2 Derivation of Partial Differential Equations for Heat Conduction Analysis 291
9.4.3 Heat Conduction Equation in Rectangular Coordinate Systems 292
9.4.4 Heat Conduction Equation in a Cylindrical Polar Coordinate System 293
9.4.5 General Heat Conduction Equation 293
9.4.6 Initial and Boundary Conditions 293
9.5 Solution of Partial Differential Equations for Transient Heat Conduction Analysis 298
9.5.1 Transient Heat Conduction Analysis in Rectangular Coordinate System 298
9.5.2 Transient Heat Conduction Analysis in the Cylindrical Polar Coordinate System 303
9.6 Solution of Partial Differential Equations for Steadystate Heat Conduction Analysis 308
9.6.1 Steadystate Heat Conduction Analysis in the Rectangular Coordinate System 308
9.6.2 Steadystate Heat Conduction Analysis in the Cylindrical Polar Coordinate System 311
9.7 Partial Differential Equations for Transverse Vibration of Cable Structures 314
9.7.1 Derivation of Partial Differential Equations for Free Vibration of Cable Structures 314
9.7.2 Solution of Partial Differential Equation for Free Vibration of Cable Structures 318
9.7.3 Convergence of Series Solutions 322
9.7.4 Modes of Vibration of Cable Structures 323
9.8 Partial Differential Equations for Transverse Vibration of Membranes 328
9.8.1 Derivation of the Partial Differential Equation 328
9.8.2 Solution of the Partial Differential Equation for Plate Vibration 331
9.8.3 Numerical Solution of the Partial Differential Equation for Plate Vibration 334
9.9 Problems 336
10 Numerical Solution Methods for Engineering Analysis 339
Chapter Learning Objectives 339
10.1 Introduction 339
10.2 Engineering Analysis with Numerical Solutions 340
10.3 Solution of Nonlinear Equations 341
10.3.1 Solution Using Microsoft Excel Software 341
10.3.2 The Newton–RaphsonMethod 342
10.4 Numerical Integration Methods 347
10.4.1 The Trapezoidal Rule for Numerical Integration 348
10.4.2 Numerical Integration by Simpson’s Onethird Rule 352
10.4.3 Numerical Integration by Gaussian Quadrature 356
10.5 Numerical Methods for Solving Differential Equations 361
10.5.1 The Principle of Finite Difference 362
10.5.2 TheThree Basic Finitedifference Schemes 363
10.5.3 Finitedifference Formulation for Partial Derivatives 366
10.5.4 Numerical Solution of Differential Equations 367
10.5.4.1 The Secondorder Runge–Kutta Method 367
10.5.4.2 The Fourthorder Runge–Kutta Method 369
10.5.4.3 Runge–Kutta Method for Higherorder Differential Equations 370
10.6 Introduction to Numerical Analysis Software Packages 375
10.6.1 Introduction to Mathematica 375
10.6.2 Introduction to MATLAB 376
10.7 Problems 377
11 Introduction to Finiteelement Analysis 381
Chapter Learning Objectives 381
11.1 Introduction 381
11.2 The Principle of Finiteelement Analysis 383
11.3 Steps in Finiteelement Analysis 383
11.3.1 Derivation of Interpolation Function for Simplex Elements with Scalar Quantities at Nodes 388
11.3.2 Derivation of Interpolation Function for Simplex Elements with Vector Quantities at Nodes 390
11.4 Output of Finiteelement Analysis 401
11.5 Elastic Stress Analysis of Solid Structures by the FiniteelementMethod 403
11.5.1 Stresses 404
11.5.2 Displacements 406
11.5.3 Strains 406
11.5.4 Fundamental Relationships 407
11.5.4.1 Strain–Displacement Relations 407
11.5.4.2 Stress–Strain Relations 408
11.5.4.3 Strain Energy in Deformed Elastic Solids 409
11.5.5 Finiteelement Formulation 409
11.5.6 Finiteelement Formulation for Onedimensional Solid Structures 413
11.6 Generalpurpose Finiteelement Analysis Codes 417
11.6.1 Common Features in Generalpurpose Finiteelement Codes 419
11.6.2 Simulation using generalpurpose finiteelement codes 420
11.7 Problems 422
12 Statistics for Engineering Analysis 425
Chapter Learning Objectives 425
12.1 Introduction 425
12.2 Statistics in Engineering Practice 427
12.3 The Scope of Statistics 428
12.4 Common Concepts and Terminology in Statistical Analysis 430
12.4.1 The Mode of a Dataset 430
12.4.2 The Histogram of a Statistical Dataset 430
12.4.3 The Mean 431
12.4.4 The Median 433
12.4.5 Variation and Deviation 433
12.5 Standard Deviation (��) and Variance (��2) 434
12.5.1 The Standard Deviation 434
12.5.2 The Variance 434
12.6 The Normal Distribution Curve and Normal Distribution Function 435
12.7 Weibull Distribution Function for Probabilistic Engineering Design 437
12.7.1 Statistical Approach to the Design of Structures Made of Ceramic and Brittle Materials 438
12.7.2 TheWeibull Distribution Function 439
12.7.3 Estimation ofWeibull Parameters 441
12.7.4 Probabilistic Design of Structures with Random Fracture Strength of Materials 443
12.8 Statistical Quality Control 447
12.9 Statistical Process Control 448
12.9.1 Quality Issues in Industrial Automation and Mass Production 448
12.9.2 The Statistical Process Control Method 449
12.10 The “Control Charts” 450
12.10.1 ThreeSigma Control Charts 451
12.10.2 Control Charts for Sample Ranges (the RChart) 453
12.11 Problems 456
Bibliography 459
A Table for the Laplace Transform 463
B Recommended Units for Engineering Analysis 465
C Conversion of Units 467
D Application of MATLAB Software for Numerical Solutions in Engineering
Analysis 469
Index 483