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Applied English Phonology, 3rd Edition

Applied English Phonology, 3rd Edition

Mehmet Yavas

ISBN: 978-1-118-94452-3

Jan 2016

320 pages

In Stock

$44.95

Description

Now fully updated with the latest research and references, the third edition of Applied English Phonology  provides a detailed,accessible introduction to the English sound system.

  • Discusses the fundamental concepts of English phonology, from phonetic elements, phonemics, and allophonic rules of English consonants and vowels to phonotactics, stress, and intonation
  • Includes new coverage of waveform analysis, bilingual phonology, code-switching, and loan phonology
  • Expands discussions of L1 contrastive phonological structures and markedness
  • Supports students and instructors with sound files for transcription exercises and an instructor’s manual, available upon publication at www.wiley.com/go/yavas3e

Related Resources

Companion Website ix

Preface to Third Edition x

Note to the Instructor xi

Abbreviations xiii

Chapter 1 Phonetics 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Phonetic Transcription 1

1.3 Description and Articulation of Sounds of English 4

1.3.1 The vocal tract 4

1.3.2 Voicing 5

1.3.3 Places of articulation 6

1.3.4 Manners of articulation 7

1.3.5 Voice onset time 9

1.3.6 Vowels and diphthongs 11

1.4 Additional Sounds 13

1.4.1 States of the glottis 13

1.4.2 Places and manners of articulation 13

1.4.3 Secondary articulations 17

1.4.4 Consonants made with non‐pulmonic airstream mechanisms 17

1.4.5 Vowels 19

1.5 Cardinal Vowels 19

1.6 Syllables and Suprasegmentals 20

Summary 24

Exercises 24

Chapter 2 Phonology 31

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Complementary versus Overlapping Distribution 32

2.2.1 Overlapping distribution and contrast 32

2.2.2 Complementary distribution 34

2.3 Phonemic Analysis: A Mini‐Demo 38

2.4 Free Variation 46

2.5 Morphophonology 47

2.6 Practical Uses of Phonological Analysis 49

Summary 52

Exercises 53

Chapter 3 English Consonants 59

3.1 Stops 59

3.2 Fricatives 65

3.3 Affricates 68

3.4 Nasals 69

3.5 Approximants 71

3.6 Sociophonetic Variation 74

Summary 75

Exercises 75

Chapter 4 English Vowels 80

4.1 Introduction 80

4.2 Vowel Set of American English 80

4.2.1 Phonetic properties of vowels 81

4.2.2 Tense–lax 82

4.2.3 Nasalized vowels 83

4.2.4 Length 84

4.2.5 Vowels before /ɹ̣/ 84

4.2.6 Vowels before /l/ 85

4.3 Front Vowels 86

4.4 Central Vowels 87

4.5 Back Vowels 88

4.6 Diphthongs 89

4.7 Sociophonetic Variation 92

4.8 Non‐US Varieties 92

4.9 Full Vowels–Reduced Vowels 95

4.10 Full (Strong) Forms versus Reduced (Weak) Forms of Function Words 97

Summary 99

Exercises 100

Chapter 5 Acoustics of Vowels and Consonants 104

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Spectrographic Analysis 106

5.3 Vowels and Diphthongs 107

5.4 Consonants 112

5.4.1 Obstruents 112

5.4.2 Sonorant consonants 120

5.5 Putting it Together 122

5.6 Waveform Analysis 125

5.7 Context 141

5.8 Practical Applications: Some Examples 143

Summary 145

Appendix 146

Exercises 148

Chapter 6 Syllables 154

6.1 Introduction 154

6.2 Number of Syllables 157

6.3 Sonority 158

6.4 Syllabification 160

6.5 English Syllable Phonotactics 162

6.5.1 Single onsets 163

6.5.2 Double onsets 163

6.5.3 Triple onsets 165

6.5.4 Codas 166

6.5.5 Double codas 166

6.5.6 Triple codas 166

6.6 Written Syllabification 170

6.7 Syllable Weight and Ambisyllabicity 173

6.8 Practical Applications 174

Summary 177

Exercises 177

Chapter 7 Stress and Intonation 180

7.1 Introduction 180

7.2 Noun and Adjective Stress 181

7.3 Verb Stress 184

7.4 Secondary Stress 186

7.5 Affixes 188

7.5.1 Stress‐bearing (attracting) suffixes 189

7.5.2 Stress‐neutral suffixes 189

7.5.3 Stress‐shifting (fixing) suffixes 190

7.6 Stress in Compounds 192

7.7 Differences between American and British English 193

7.8 Intonation 196

7.9 Variations among the Varieties 201

Summary 202

Exercises 203

Chapter 8 Structural Factors in Second Language Phonology 206

8.1 Introduction 206

8.2 Spanish–English Mini Contrastive Analysis 210

8.3 Differential Treatment of Mismatches 215

8.3.1 Basic vs. derived context 216

8.3.2 Deflected contrast 217

8.3.3 Hypercontrast 218

8.4 Markedness 218

8.5 Ontogeny Phylogeny Model (OPM) 225

8.6 Optimality Theory (OT) 227

8.7 Perception 231

8.8 Bilingual Phonology 237

8.9 Loan Phonology 240

Summary 242

Appendix A 243

Appendix B 251

Exercises 252

Chapter 9 Spelling and Pronunciation 255

9.1 Irregularity of English Spelling 255

9.2 Phoneme–Grapheme Correspondences in English 257

9.2.1 Consonants 257

9.2.2 Vowels 261

9.3 Morphological Basis of English Spelling 265

9.4 American English vs. British English 267

Summary 269

Exercises 270

Recommended Readings 273

Appendix: List of Sound Files 276

Glossary 281

References 288

Index 298