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Applied Gas Dynamics

Applied Gas Dynamics

Ethirajan Rathakrishnan

ISBN: 978-0-470-82576-1

Oct 2010

680 pages

Select type: Hardcover

In Stock



In Applied Gas Dynamics, Professor Ethirajan Rathakrishnan introduces the high-tech science of gas dynamics, from a definition of the subject to the three essential processes of this science, namely, the isentropic process, shock and expansion process, and Fanno and Rayleigh flows. The material is presented in such a manner that beginners can follow the subject comfortably. Rathakrishnan also covers the theoretical and application aspects of high-speed flows in which enthalpy change becomes significant.

  • Covers both theory and applications
  • Explains involved aspects of flow processes in detail
  • Provides a large number of worked through examples in all chapters
  • Reinforces learning with concise summaries at the end of every chapter
  • Contains a liberal number of exercise problems with answers
  • Discusses ram jet and jet theory -- unique topics of use to all working in the field
  • Classroom tested at introductory and advanced levels
  • Solutions manual and lecture slides available for instructors

Applied Gas Dynamics is aimed at graduate students and advanced undergraduates in Aerospace Engineering and Mechanical Engineering who are taking courses such as Gas Dynamics, Compressible Flows, High-Speed Aerodynamics, Applied Gas Dynamics, Experimental Aerodynamics and High-Enthalpy Flows. Practicing engineers and researchers working with high speed flows will also find this book helpful.

Lecture materials for instructors available at

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About the Author.

1 Basic Facts.

1.1 Definition of Gas Dynamics.

1.2 Introduction.

1.3 Compressibility.

1.4 Supersonic Flow – What is it?

1.5 Speed of Sound.

1.6 Temperature Rise.

1.7 Mach Angle.

1.8 Thermodynamics of Fluid Flow.

1.9 First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy Equation).

1.10 The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy Equation).

1.11 Thermal and Calorical Properties.

1.12 The Perfect Gas.

1.13 Wave Propagation.

1.14 Velocity of Sound.

1.15 Subsonic and Supersonic Flows.

1.16 Similarity Parameters.

1.17 Continuum Hypothesis.

1.18 Compressible Flow Regimes.

1.19 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

2 Steady One-Dimensional Flow.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Fundamental Equations.

2.3 Discharge from a Reservoir.

2.4 Streamtube Area–Velocity Relation.

2.5 de Laval Nozzle.

2.6 Supersonic Flow Generation.

2.7 Performance of Actual Nozzles.

2.8 Diffusers.

2.9 Dynamic Head Measurement in Compressible Flow.

2.10 Pressure Coefficient.

2.11 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

3 Normal Shock Waves.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Equations of Motion for a Normal Shock Wave.

3.3 The Normal Shock Relations for a Perfect Gas.

3.4 Change of Stagnation or Total Pressure Across a Shock.

3.5 Hugoniot Equation.

3.6 The Propagating Shock Wave.

3.7 Reflected Shock Wave.

3.8 Centered Expansion Wave.

3.9 Shock Tube.

3.10 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

4 Oblique Shock and ExpansionWaves.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Oblique Shock Relations.

4.3 Relation between β and θ.

4.4 Shock Polar.

4.5 Supersonic Flow Over a Wedge.

4.6 Weak Oblique Shocks.

4.7 Supersonic Compression.

4.8 Supersonic Expansion by Turning.

4.9 The Prandtl–Meyer Expansion.

4.10 Simple and Nonsimple Regions.

4.11 Reflection and Intersection of Shocks and Expansion Waves.

4.12 Detached Shocks.

4.13 Mach Reflection.

4.14 Shock-Expansion Theory.

4.15 Thin Aerofoil Theory.

4.15.1 Application of Thin Aerofoil Theory.

4.16 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

5 Compressible Flow Equations.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Crocco's Theorem.

5.3 General Potential Equation for Three-Dimensional Flow.

5.4 Linearization of the Potential Equation.

5.5 Potential Equation for Bodies of Revolution.

5.6 Boundary Conditions.

5.7 Pressure Coefficient.

5.8 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

6 Similarity Rule.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Two-Dimensional Flow: The Prandtl-Glauert Rule for Subsonic Flow.

6.3 Prandtl–Glauert Rule for Supersonic Flow: Versions I and II.

6.4 The von Karman Rule for Transonic Flow.

6.5 Hypersonic Similarity.

6.6 Three-Dimensional Flow: Gothert’s Rule.

6.7 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flows.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 General Linear Solution for Supersonic Flow.

7.3 Flow Over a Wave-Shaped Wall.

7.4 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

8 Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Flow in Constant Area Duct with Friction.

8.4 Flow with Heating or Cooling in Ducts.

8.5 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

9 Method of Characteristics.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 The Concepts of Characteristic.

9.3 The Compatibility Relation.

9.4 The Numerical Computational Method.

9.5 Theorems for Two-Dimensional Flow.

9.6 Numerical Computation with Weak Finite Waves.

9.7 Design of Supersonic Nozzle.

9.8 Summary.

10 Measurements in Compressible Flow.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Pressure Measurements.

10.3 Temperature Measurements.

10.4 Velocity and Direction.

10.5 Density Problems.

10.6 Compressible Flow Visualization.

10.7 Interferometer.

10.8 Schlieren System.

10.9 Shadowgraph.

10.10 Wind Tunnels.

10.11 Hypersonic Tunnels.

10.12 Instrumentation and Calibration of Wind Tunnels.

10.13 Calibration and Use of Hypersonic Tunnels.

10.14 Flow Visualization.

10.15 Summary.

Exercise Problems.

11 Ramjet.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 The Ideal Ramjet.

11.3 Aerodynamic Losses.

11.4 Aerothermodynamics of Engine Components.

11.5 Flow Through Inlets.

11.6 Performance of Actual Intakes.

11.7 Shock–Boundary Layer Interaction.

11.8 Oblique Shock Wave Incident on Flat Plate.

11.9 Normal Shocks in Ducts.

11.10 External Supersonic Compression.

11.11 Two-Shock Intakes.

11.12 Multi-Shock Intakes.

11.13 Isentropic Compression.

11.14 Limits of External Compression.

11.15 External Shock Attachment.

11.16 Internal Shock Attachment.

11.17 Pressure Loss.

11.18 Supersonic Combustion.

11.19 Summary.

12 Jets.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Mathematical Treatment of Jet Profiles.

12.3 Theory of Turbulent Jets.

12.4 Experimental Methods for Studying Jets and the Techniques Used for Analysis.

12.5 Expansion Levels of Jets.

12.6 Control of Jets.

12.7 Summary.




""He begins this single-authored text with basic facts: definitions, supersonic flow, speed of flow, temperature rise, Mach angle, thermodynamics of fluid flow, and so on. Subsequent chapters address steady one-dimensional flow, normal shock waves, oblique shock and expansion waves, compressible flow equations, similarity rule, and two-dimensional compressible flows, among other topics, ending with chapters on ramjet, and jets. Each chapter concludes with a summary and exercise problems."" (SciTech Book News, December 2010)